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Nueve esqueletos descubiertos en una tumba de 3.600 años podrían ser la élite cananea de Meguido

Nueve esqueletos descubiertos en una tumba de 3.600 años podrían ser la élite cananea de Meguido


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El descubrimiento de una tumba de la Edad del Bronce Medio en la antigua ciudad cananea de Meguido ofrece una visión fascinante de cómo era la vida de los ricos y poderosos antes de que el ejército de Thutmosis derrocara a sus líderes a principios del siglo XV a. C. Los investigadores están especialmente ansiosos por conocer los orígenes de la clase dominante en ese momento.

Meguido es más famoso por al menos tres batallas importantes en su suelo: en el siglo XV a.C. cuando Thutmosis III luchó contra una enorme coalición de cananeos liderada por el jefe de Meguido y la ciudad de Kadesh, en 609 a.C. cuando el faraón Necao II luchó contra el Rey. Josiah del Reino de Judá, y cuando las tropas aliadas se enfrentaron al ejército otomano allí en 1918.

"La batalla de Meguido, 609 a. C." ( CC BY SA 3.0 )

Los arqueólogos han intentado descubrir los secretos de Meguido, la ciudad a la que los antiguos griegos se referían como Armagedón, durante más de un siglo. Las excavaciones han revelado numerosos edificios monumentales, como palacios, templos y murallas de la ciudad antigua, así como una variedad de artefactos de la Edad del Bronce y del Hierro (aproximadamente 3300-586 a. C.).

National Geographic informa que los arqueólogos se han topado recientemente con una nueva característica de interés: una tumba rica e intacta de 3.600 años de antigüedad. El descubrimiento se realizó cuando se observaron grietas cerca de la superficie de los palacios de la Edad del Bronce identificados en la década de 1930. La suciedad parecía derramarse en una cámara desconocida debajo. Cuando el equipo comenzó a explorar la característica interesante en 2016, los arqueólogos desenterraron un corredor que conducía a una cámara funeraria.

  • Los antiguos cananeos importaban animales de Egipto para ser sacrificados
  • Arqueólogos descubren un puesto de avanzada de la Legión Romana de 2.000 años que controlaba los levantamientos judíos

Megiddo, o Tel Megiddo, es el sitio de una antigua ciudad en el valle de Jezreel, en el norte de Israel. ( CC BY SA 2.0 )

Cuando miraron adentro, los investigadores estaban encantados de encontrar los restos intactos de una mujer de unos 30 años, un hombre que murió en algún momento entre las edades de 40 y 60 y un niño de entre 8 y 10 años. Los tres fueron sepultados con joyas de oro, plata y bronce bien elaboradas, como collares, una diadema, anillos, broches, brazaletes, tobilleras y alfileres.

La tumba fue excavada para los miembros de élite de la sociedad de Meguido de la Edad del Bronce Medio. Israel Finkelstein le dijo a National Geographic cómo los investigadores llegaron a esta conclusión: “Estamos hablando de un entierro familiar de élite debido a la monumentalidad de la estructura, los ricos hallazgos y el hecho de que el entierro está ubicado muy cerca del palacio real. . "

Las joyas de oro que adornaron el entierro de hombres adultos incluyen (desde arriba) una diadema, una pulsera y un collar de torsión. ( PETER LANYI, EL MUSEO DE ISRAEL, JERUSALÉN )

Pero la rica tumba no solo da fe de la riqueza de la familia en su interior; también indica que Meguido fue un sitio cosmopolita y rico durante la Edad del Bronce Medio. Vasijas de cerámica de Chipre y tinajas de piedra que pueden tener orígenes egipcios promueven la idea de comercio entre Meguido y estos lugares.

Un modelo de cómo podría haber sido Megido en 1457 a. C. (Foto de 1978).

Cuando se exploró más la tumba, se descubrió que los cuerpos de otras personas habían sido empujados hacia el interior de la cámara funeraria. Melissa Cradic, experta en antiguos rituales funerarios en el área y miembro del equipo en la excavación, le dijo a National Geographic que había dos fases de entierro en la tumba. Seis personas fueron enterradas aproximadamente al mismo tiempo, luego sus huesos se mezclaron en la parte posterior de la tumba cuando tres más fueron enterradas en el frente de la cámara funeraria.

Parece que había un vínculo entre las nueve personas enterradas en el interior, como lo indica la continuación de los tipos de joyas que usaban todos en la tumba y el hecho de que todas fueron colocadas en la misma cámara. El análisis físico de los huesos también sugiere que puede haber habido un vínculo genético entre las personas enterradas en las dos fases y varias de las personas en la tumba pueden haber sufrido un posible trastorno genético óseo o sanguíneo.

Dos de los tres miembros del entierro familiar más elitista representados cuando los arqueólogos los descubrieron.
(ADAM PRINS Y ROBERT HOMSHER )

No obstante, Cradic dice que el hombre, la mujer y el niño que fueron enterrados en último lugar probablemente tuvieron un papel más importante en su sociedad que sus predecesores, “Sin embargo, los tres últimos probablemente fueron de especial importancia debido a la gran cantidad y riqueza excepcional de su ajuar funerario. Además del hecho de que sus cuerpos no fueron molestados después del entierro ".

  • Anillo medieval desenterrado a la sombra del Armagedón
  • La ciudadela cananea de 3400 años será el sótano de un edificio alto en la ciudad israelí

Pero uno de los aspectos más emocionantes del descubrimiento aún no se ha revelado: actualmente se está realizando un análisis de ADN para tratar de ver si hay alguna conexión posible entre el entierro de élite, o posiblemente real, encontrado cerca del palacio con personas enterradas en más fosas comunes en el sitio.

La razón por la que los investigadores quieren explorar este aspecto se debe a la sugerencia en documentos antiguos de que la élite de Megido puede tener orígenes hurritas, no cananeos, después de la conquista de la ciudad por parte de Egipto. Específicamente, las cartas diplomáticas muestran que un gobernante de Meguido en el siglo XIV a. C. tenía el nombre hurrita Birydia, lo que puede significar que los hurritas tenían cierto control sobre las ciudades-estado cananeas en ese período.

Carta de Biridiya de Megiddo, al rey de Egipto. El texto habla de la cosecha realizada por trabajadores de corvee en la ciudad de Nuribta. (Rama / CC BY SA 2.0 )

Finkelstein tiene la esperanza de que se revelen nuevos conocimientos a través del análisis de ADN, como le dijo a National Geographic: "Estos estudios tienen el potencial de revolucionar lo que sabemos sobre la población de Canaán antes del surgimiento del mundo de la Biblia".


Exclusivo: el entierro real en la antigua Canaán puede arrojar nueva luz sobre la ciudad bíblica

El extraordinario descubrimiento de una cámara funeraria magnífica e intacta de 3.600 años de antigüedad en la antigua ciudad-estado cananea de Meguido ha asombrado a los arqueólogos, no solo por la variedad de riquezas encontradas en la tumba, sino también por la información potencial que puede proporcionar sobre la dinastía real que gobernó este poderoso centro antes de su conquista por Egipto a principios del siglo XV a.C.

Ubicado a 19 millas al sur de Haifa, en lo que hoy es el norte de Israel, el antiguo sitio de Meguido dominó un paso estratégico en las principales rutas militares y comerciales internacionales durante casi cinco milenios, desde el 3000 a.C. a 1918. Con vistas al valle de Jezreel, el sitio ha sido testigo de numerosas batallas decisivas que han alterado el curso de la historia, lo que le valió el nombre figurativo de Armagedón (de Har-Megiddo, o 'Colina de Meguido') acuñado por primera vez en el Libro del Apocalipsis .

En la primera batalla registrada en la historia del Antiguo Cercano Oriente, en Meguido, las fuerzas del faraón egipcio Tutmosis III sitiaron la ciudad fortificada en la primera mitad del siglo XV a.C. Después de un asedio de siete meses, la ciudad se rindió y cedió al faraón, quien incorporó Canaán como provincia a su imperio.


9 La cremación de Cornualles

Cuando el equipo de Catherine Frieman & rsquos llegó para cavar en un campo de Cornualles, los agricultores locales le dijeron que la tierra se había arado durante generaciones. Esta no fue una buena noticia para el arqueólogo australiano. Aun así, la excavación continuó en 2018 durante dos semanas cerca de la ciudad de Looe.

El lugar tenía un túmulo funerario de la Edad de Bronce. Para sorpresa de todos, la tumba trajo a casa algo de tocino a pesar de sufrir años de maquinaria agrícola. Aparte de las herramientas de pedernal y la cerámica, se encontró una urna de arcilla apenas a un dedo de profundidad por debajo de la superficie. El barco llevó a cabo una cremación humana de 4.000 años.

Haber encontrado una urna intacta tan poco profunda en un campo bien cultivado fue un milagro. Los restos revelarán mucho sobre la persona prehistórica, incluida la edad, el género, las dietas de adultos y niños y posiblemente el origen de la comida. [2]

Pero el montículo también reveló una olla misteriosa y mdasha de la Edad Media. Este descubrimiento inesperado contenía rastros de comida y fue enterrado bajo piedras planas. Se desconoce por qué alguien cavó en el montículo generaciones después de que se construyó simplemente para agregar una olla.


La deliciosa y antigua historia del chocolate y la vainilla

De todos los grandes debates & # 8212Coke versus Pepsi, boxers versus calzoncillos, agitados versus revueltos & # 8212, pocos han sido más polarizantes que el chocolate versus la vainilla. Aquellos de nosotros alineados con el chocolate & # 8212 el producto de granos de cacao tostados y molidos & # 8212 lo encontramos cálido, reconfortante, ambrosial y, en general, descartamos todas las cosas sin chocolate como & # 8220 vainilla & # 8221, lo que significa soso y aburrido. Aquellos que prefieren la vainilla, una orquídea trepadora que da frutos largos en forma de vaina, elogian su dulzura aromática y notan que realza el sabor del chocolate, que sin adornar sería opaco y un poco plano, en resumen, vainilla.

El único aspecto de la división entre chocolate y vainilla que rara vez se ha discutido es la cuestión de la procedencia. Pero durante el último año, dos nuevos estudios han reajustado radicalmente las historias de origen de ambos. En el frente del chocolate, la evidencia química más temprana del uso del cacao se ha desplazado unos 1.400 años más hacia el pasado y unas 2.000 millas al sur. Por lo que respecta a la vainilla, los investigadores ahora creen que los humanos no solo usaron los frijoles más de dos milenios antes de lo que se pensaba, sino a todo un océano de distancia. Estos hallazgos son solo un par de los últimos ejemplos de cómo los arqueólogos, genetistas y antropólogos culturales están reescribiendo la historia a través del estudio de los alimentos.

El primer uso de la vainilla se ha atribuido durante mucho tiempo a la comunidad totonaca en lo que ahora es el estado mexicano de Veracruz. Recogieron las vainas fragantes de las orquídeas que crecían silvestres en los bosques. Mucho más tarde, domesticaron las vides, que pueden tardar hasta cinco años en madurar. Cada flor debe ser polinizada el día que florece o de lo contrario el tallo no da fruto. En
México, Vainilla planifolia coevolucionó con su polinizador, la abeja melipona.

Según la leyenda totonaca, los humildes comienzos de la industria de la vainilla se remontan a la Papantla del siglo XIII, conocida como & # 8220 la ciudad que perfumaba el mundo & # 8221 & # 8220. bien pudo haber molido la vaina de vainilla para trastornos pulmonares y estomacales, así como haber usado el líquido de las judías verdes como cataplasma para extraer el veneno de insectos y las infecciones de las heridas, & # 8221 Patricia Rain explica en Vainilla, su historia cultural de la especia.

Los aztecas, que subyugaron a los totonacas en 1480, conocían la planta como tlilxóchitl, o & # 8220black pod & # 8221 (un nombre que se traduciría erróneamente como & # 8220black flor, & # 8221 dando lugar a siglos de confusión sobre los pétalos de color amarillo prímula). El tributo se exigió en forma de frijoles curados, un ingrediente indispensable en la sabrosa bebida de chocolate. cacahuatl& # 8212 también amenizado con chiles & # 8212, que se convirtió en la bebida preferida de la nobleza azteca. En 1519, Moctezuma II y el invasor español Hern & # 225n Cort & # 233s bebieron una bebida fría y espumosa en una fiesta en la capital Tenochtitl & # 225n (ahora Ciudad de México).

Romper los granos de cacao en semillas es un paso en el largo proceso de creación del chocolate. (Alamy) Vainas de vainilla. (Alamy)

Unos 75 años después de que Cort & # 233s regresara a Europa con las vainas, Hugh Morgan, el boticario y pastelero de la reina Isabel I, sugirió que la vainilla podría usarse como aromatizante por sí sola. A partir de ese momento, Su Majestad, una fanática del azúcar con dientes notablemente podridos, se entregó a los dulces con infusión de vainilla. Thomas Jefferson descubrió el sabor durante una visita a Francia a fines del siglo XVIII. Cuando no encontró ninguno disponible a su regreso a Filadelfia, escribió al charg & # 233 d & # 8217affaires estadounidense en París, pidiéndole que le enviara 50 cápsulas envueltas en periódicos. & # 8220Con la floritura de un bolígrafo y la ayuda de un amigo, & # 8221 escribe Rain, & # 8220 vio que vainilla había viajado casi en círculo completo de regreso a las Américas. & # 8221

Ahora llega la noticia de que la vainilla puede haberse convertido en algo en el Viejo Mundo antes que en el nuevo. Los investigadores han identificado el ejemplo más antiguo conocido de la especia, en el norte de Israel. Empapado en tres pequeñas jarras recuperadas en un sitio en Megiddo fue una dulce sorpresa: dos de los principales productos químicos en la vainilla, el hidroxibenzaldehído y la vainillina, un compuesto que forma pequeños cristales blancos en la superficie de la vaina, a medida que el frijol fermenta. La expedición, organizada por Israel Finkelstein de la Universidad de Tel Aviv, tuvo los ingredientes de una Momia guión & # 8212 una tumba cananea intacta de 3.600 años de antigüedad, tres esqueletos intactos y un tesoro de joyas de oro y plata. Llámalo el & # 8220Thrilla en vainilla. & # 8221

Las vasijas se sentaron junto a los esqueletos. & # 8220La tumba probablemente esté asociada con la familia real de Meguido o su séquito, & # 8221 Finkelstein. & # 8220Está a pocos metros de los restos del palacio. & # 8221 & # 8221 Es posible que la vainilla se mezcle con aceite vegetal para crear un perfume, ya sea para purificar la cámara funeraria o para ungir el cadáver antes del entierro. & # 8220 La vainilla tiene propiedades antimicrobianas que podrían ayudar a preservar un cuerpo antes del entierro & # 8221, dice la arqueóloga Melissa Cradic de la Universidad de California, Berkeley, quien dirigió el examen de la tumba. & # 8220 Otra posibilidad es que los perfumes con aroma de vainilla se depositaran en el entierro como una ofrenda cara por los muertos. & # 8221

La historia botánica sugiere que la vainillina que se encuentra en las jarras en el Israel moderno puede provenir de orquídeas nativas del sudeste asiático o África oriental. Finkelstein cree que la vainillina probablemente llegó al Medio Oriente a través de extensas rutas comerciales de la Edad del Bronce. & # 8220 Este hallazgo es la punta del iceberg & # 8221 Cradic dice, & # 8220 y representa solo el comienzo de nuestra comprensión del cultivo, el intercambio y los usos de la vainilla en el mundo antiguo & # 8221.

Una jarra de 3.600 años que contiene residuos de vainillina hallada en Israel. (Cortesía de la expedición Megiddo)

Como si este nuevo descubrimiento no fuera suficiente para hacer un cambio de 6 años a la fresa, la ciencia también ha puesto en duda el cumpleaños del chocolate. Basado en una muestra de una jarra de cerámica, se cree que la historia del chocolate comenzó con los Mokaya, pobladores sedentarios que ocuparon la región del Soconusco de México y la costa del Pacífico # 8217. Alrededor de 1900 a.C., los Mokayas comenzaron a consumir Theobroma cacao, una planta que prospera en los tramos superiores del Amazonas. Siguió una sucesión de sociedades mesoamericanas & # 8212Olmecas, toltecas, mayas, aztecas & # 8212 que encontraron formas de explotar el frijol, que se usaba de diversas maneras como unidad monetaria, unidad de medida y comida. No fue hasta 1847 que la empresa inglesa J. S. Fry & amp Sons of Bristol produjo la primera barra de chocolate sólida ofrecida al público en general.

Resulta que nuestra historia de amor con el chocolate es anterior al Mokaya. Una nueva investigación indica que el cacao se usó originalmente en los bosques húmedos de la cuenca alta del Amazonas, donde el árbol es genéticamente más diverso. Los investigadores observaron frascos y fragmentos de cerámica de Santa Ana-La Florida, un sitio arqueológico en Ecuador que alguna vez fue habitado por el pueblo Mayo-Chinchipe, y detectaron signos de vertidos de chocolate de hace 5.300 años.

Un equipo de arqueólogos y biólogos de universidades de América del Norte, América del Sur y Europa identificó granos de almidón conservados del género. Teobroma que incluye la especie T. cacao, dentro de los artefactos, junto con la teobromina, un alcaloide amargo producido más abundantemente por T. cacao que sus parientes salvajes. El factor decisivo: ADN antiguo con secuencias que coincidían con las de los árboles de cacao modernos. Las descripciones etnográficas y etnobotánicas de los pueblos indígenas de la cuenca del Amazonas han llevado al arqueólogo Michael Blake, coautor del artículo, a sospechar que las plantas se usaban con fines medicinales y ceremoniales.

Como cabría esperar de un estudio sobre el controvertido tema del chocolate, esas conclusiones no son universalmente aceptadas. Algunos científicos se preguntan si Mayo-Chinchipe preparó las semillas para comer (un elaborado proceso de fermentación, secado, tostado y triturado) o simplemente recogió las vainas. Otros han desafiado la idea de que las plantas de cacao hicieron el paso de América del Sur. Otro análisis reciente relacionó el cultivo de cacao a hace unos 3.600 años en América Central.

Si esta nueva beca alimentaria nos ha mostrado algo, es & # 8217 que nada & # 8212 ni siquiera el chocolate y la vainilla & # 8212 es siempre blanco y negro.


Contenido

    I: 1150 [4] –950 a. C. [5]
  • Edad del Hierro II: 950 [6] -586 a. C.
  • Neobabilónico: 586–539 a. C.
  • Persa: 539-332 a. C.
  • Helenístico: 333–53 a. C. [7]

Otros términos académicos que se utilizan con frecuencia son:

La costa este del Mediterráneo, el Levante, se extiende 400 millas de norte a sur desde las montañas Tauro hasta la península del Sinaí, y de 70 a 100 millas de este a oeste entre el mar y el desierto de Arabia. [9] La llanura costera del Levante meridional, amplia en el sur y estrecha hacia el norte, está respaldada en su parte más meridional por una zona de estribaciones, la Shfela como la llanura que se estrecha a medida que avanza hacia el norte, terminando en el promontorio de Monte Carmelo. Al este de la llanura y el Shfela hay una cresta montañosa, la "región montañosa de Judá" en el sur, la "región montañosa de Efraín" al norte de eso, luego Galilea y el Monte Líbano. Al este se encuentra nuevamente el valle empinado ocupado por el río Jordán, el mar Muerto y el wadi del Arabá, que continúa hasta el brazo oriental del mar Rojo. Más allá de la meseta está el desierto sirio, que separa el Levante de Mesopotamia. Al suroeste está Egipto, al noreste Mesopotamia. La ubicación y las características geográficas del estrecho Levante hicieron de la zona un campo de batalla entre las poderosas entidades que la rodeaban. [10]

Canaán en la Edad del Bronce Final era una sombra de lo que había sido siglos antes: muchas ciudades fueron abandonadas, otras se redujeron en tamaño y la población total asentada probablemente no era mucho más de cien mil. [11] El asentamiento se concentró en ciudades a lo largo de la llanura costera y a lo largo de las principales rutas de comunicación, la región montañosa central y norte que más tarde se convertiría en el reino bíblico de Israel estaba escasamente habitada [12] aunque cartas de los archivos egipcios indican que Jerusalén ya estaba una ciudad-estado cananea que reconoce el señorío egipcio. [13] Política y culturalmente estaba dominada por Egipto, [14] cada ciudad bajo su propio gobernante, constantemente en desacuerdo con sus vecinos, y apelando a los egipcios para que resolvieran sus diferencias. [12]

El sistema de ciudad-estado cananea se derrumbó durante el colapso de la Edad del Bronce Final, [15] y la cultura cananea fue absorbida gradualmente por la de los filisteos, fenicios e israelitas. [16] El proceso fue gradual [17] y una fuerte presencia egipcia continuó hasta el siglo XII a. C. y, aunque algunas ciudades cananeas fueron destruidas, otras continuaron existiendo en la Edad del Hierro I. [18]

El nombre "Israel" aparece por primera vez en la estela de Merneptah c. 1208 AEC: "Israel es asolado y su simiente ya no existe". [19] Este "Israel" era una entidad cultural y probablemente política, lo suficientemente bien establecida como para que los egipcios lo percibieran como un posible desafío, pero un grupo étnico más que un estado organizado. [20]

La arqueóloga Paula McNutt dice: "Es probable que durante la Edad del Hierro I una población comenzó a identificarse como 'israelita'", diferenciándose de sus vecinos a través de prohibiciones de matrimonios mixtos, un énfasis en la historia familiar y la genealogía y la religión. [21]

En la Edad del Bronce Final no había más de unas 25 aldeas en las tierras altas, pero esto aumentó a más de 300 al final de la Edad del Hierro I, mientras que la población asentada se duplicó de 20.000 a 40.000. [22] Las aldeas eran más numerosas y más grandes en el norte, y probablemente compartían las tierras altas con pastores nómadas, que no dejaron restos. [23] Los arqueólogos e historiadores que intentan rastrear los orígenes de estos aldeanos han encontrado imposible identificar características distintivas que pudieran definirlos como específicamente israelitas: se han identificado frascos con borde de cuello y casas de cuatro habitaciones fuera de las tierras altas y, por lo tanto, no pueden ser utilizado para distinguir los sitios israelitas, [24] y aunque la alfarería de las aldeas de las tierras altas es mucho más limitada que la de los sitios cananeos de las tierras bajas, se desarrolla tipológicamente a partir de la alfarería cananea anterior. [25] Israel Finkelstein propuso que el diseño ovalado o circular que distingue algunos de los primeros sitios de las tierras altas, y la notable ausencia de huesos de cerdo en los sitios de las colinas, podrían tomarse como marcadores de etnia, pero otros han advertido que estos pueden ser un " "Adaptación de sentido común" a la vida de las tierras altas y no necesariamente reveladora de los orígenes. [26] Otros sitios arameos también demuestran una ausencia contemporánea de restos de cerdo en ese momento, a diferencia de las excavaciones cananeas anteriores y filisteas posteriores.

En La Biblia desenterrada (2001), Finkelstein y Silberman resumieron estudios recientes. Describieron cómo, hasta 1967, el corazón de los israelitas en las tierras altas de Palestina occidental era virtualmente un tierra desconocida. Desde entonces, estudios intensivos han examinado los territorios tradicionales de las tribus de Judá, Benjamín, Efraín y Manasés. Estas encuestas han revelado el surgimiento repentino de una nueva cultura que contrasta con las sociedades filisteas y cananeas que existían en la Tierra de Israel antes durante la Edad del Hierro I. [27] Esta nueva cultura se caracteriza por la falta de restos de cerdo (mientras que el cerdo formaba el 20% de la dieta filistea en algunos lugares), por el abandono de la costumbre filistea / cananea de tener alfarería muy decorada y por la práctica de la circuncisión. La identidad étnica israelita se había originado, no en el Éxodo y una conquista posterior, sino en una transformación de las culturas cananeas-filisteas existentes. [28]

Estas encuestas revolucionaron el estudio del Israel primitivo. El descubrimiento de los restos de una densa red de pueblos de las tierras altas, todos aparentemente establecidos en el lapso de pocas generaciones, indicó que se había producido una transformación social dramática en la región montañosa central de Canaán alrededor del 1200 a. C. No había señales de invasión violenta ni siquiera de infiltración de un grupo étnico claramente definido. En cambio, parecía ser una revolución en el estilo de vida. En las tierras altas antes escasamente pobladas desde las colinas de Judea en el sur hasta las colinas de Samaria en el norte, lejos de las ciudades cananeas que estaban en proceso de colapso y desintegración, surgieron repentinamente unas doscientas cincuenta comunidades en la cima de las colinas. Aquí estaban los primeros israelitas. [29]

Por lo tanto, los eruditos modernos ven a Israel surgiendo pacíficamente e internamente de la gente existente en las tierras altas de Canaán. [30]

Extensas excavaciones arqueológicas han proporcionado una imagen de la sociedad israelita durante el período temprano de la Edad del Hierro. La evidencia arqueológica indica una sociedad de centros tipo aldea, pero con recursos más limitados y una población pequeña. Durante este período, los israelitas vivían principalmente en pequeñas aldeas, la mayor de las cuales tenía una población de hasta 300 o 400. [31] [32] Sus aldeas se construyeron en la cima de las colinas. Sus casas se construyeron en grupos alrededor de un patio común. Construyeron casas de tres o cuatro habitaciones con adobe con cimientos de piedra y, a veces, con un segundo piso de madera. Los habitantes vivían de la agricultura y el pastoreo. Construyeron terrazas para cultivar en las laderas, plantando varios cultivos y manteniendo huertos. Las aldeas eran en gran parte autosuficientes económicamente y prevalecía el intercambio económico. Según la Biblia, antes del surgimiento de la monarquía israelita, los primeros israelitas fueron dirigidos por los jueces bíblicos, o jefes que sirvieron como líderes militares en tiempos de crisis. Los eruditos están divididos sobre la historicidad de este relato. Sin embargo, es probable que las jefaturas y los sistemas políticos regionales proporcionaran seguridad. Las pequeñas aldeas no estaban amuralladas, pero probablemente eran súbditos de la ciudad principal de la zona. La escritura era conocida y estaba disponible para grabar, incluso en sitios pequeños. [33] [34] [35] [36] [37]

Las condiciones climáticas inusualmente favorables en los dos primeros siglos de la Edad del Hierro II provocaron una expansión de la población, los asentamientos y el comercio en toda la región. [38] En las tierras altas centrales esto resultó en la unificación en un reino con la ciudad de Samaria como su capital, [38] posiblemente en la segunda mitad del siglo X a. C. cuando una inscripción del faraón egipcio Shoshenq I, el bíblico Shishak, registra una serie de campañas dirigidas a la zona. [39] Israel había emergido claramente en la primera mitad del siglo IX a. C., [3] esto se atestigua cuando el rey asirio Salmanasar III nombra a "Acab el israelita" entre sus enemigos en la batalla de Qarqar (853 a. C.). En ese momento, aparentemente Israel estaba involucrado en una competencia a tres bandas con Damasco y Tiro por el control del valle de Jezreel y Galilea en el norte, y con Moab, Ammón y Aram Damasco en el este por el control de Galaad [38] la estela de Mesa. (c. 830 a. EC), dejado por un rey de Moab, celebra su éxito en deshacerse de la opresión de la "Casa de Omri" (es decir, Israel). Lleva lo que generalmente se piensa que es la primera referencia extrabíblica al nombre Yahvé. [40] Un siglo después, Israel entró en un conflicto creciente con el Imperio neoasirio en expansión, que primero dividió su territorio en varias unidades más pequeñas y luego destruyó su capital, Samaria (722 a. C.). Tanto las fuentes bíblicas como las asirias hablan de una deportación masiva de personas de Israel y su reemplazo por colonos de otras partes del imperio - tales intercambios de población eran una parte establecida de la política imperial asiria, un medio de romper la antigua estructura de poder - y el el antiguo Israel nunca más se convirtió en una entidad política independiente. [41]

Judá surgió como un reino operativo algo más tarde que Israel, durante la segunda mitad del siglo IX a. C., [3] pero el tema es de considerable controversia. [42] Hay indicios de que durante los siglos X y IX a. C., las tierras altas del sur se habían dividido entre varios centros, ninguno con una primacía clara. [43] Durante el reinado de Ezequías, entre c. 715 y 686 a. C., se puede observar un aumento notable en el poder del estado de Judea. [44] Esto se refleja en los sitios y hallazgos arqueológicos, como la Muralla Ancha, una muralla defensiva de la ciudad en Jerusalén y el túnel de Siloé, un acueducto diseñado para proporcionar agua a Jerusalén durante un asedio inminente por parte del Imperio Neo-Asirio dirigido por Senaquerib y la inscripción de Siloé, una inscripción de dintel que se encuentra sobre la entrada de una tumba, se ha atribuido al contralor Shebna. Los sellos LMLK en las manijas de los frascos de almacenamiento, excavados en estratos dentro y alrededor del formado por la destrucción de Senaquerib, parecen haber sido utilizados durante el reinado de 29 años de Senaquerib, junto con bullas de documentos sellados, algunos que pertenecían al propio Ezequías y otros que nombran a sus sirvientes. . [45]

Los registros arqueológicos indican que el Reino de Israel fue bastante próspero. La Edad del Hierro tardía vio un aumento en el desarrollo urbano en Israel. Mientras que anteriormente los israelitas habían vivido principalmente en asentamientos pequeños y no fortificados, el surgimiento del Reino de Israel vio el crecimiento de ciudades y la construcción de palacios, grandes recintos reales y fortificaciones con muros y puertas. Israel inicialmente tuvo que invertir importantes recursos en defensa, ya que estaba sujeto a incursiones y ataques arameos regulares, pero después de que los arameos fueron subyugados por los asirios e Israel pudo permitirse invertir menos recursos en la defensa de su territorio, su infraestructura arquitectónica creció dramáticamente. Se construyeron extensas fortificaciones alrededor de ciudades como Dan, Megiddo y Hazor, incluidas murallas monumentales y de múltiples torres y sistemas de entrada de múltiples puertas. La economía de Israel se basó en múltiples industrias. Tenía los mayores centros de producción de aceite de oliva de la región, utilizando al menos dos tipos diferentes de prensas de aceite de oliva, y también tenía una importante industria vitivinícola, con prensas de vino construidas junto a viñedos. Por el contrario, el Reino de Judá estaba significativamente menos avanzado. Algunos eruditos creen que no era más que una pequeña entidad tribal limitada a Jerusalén y sus alrededores inmediatos. En el siglo X y principios del IX a. C., el territorio de Judá parece haber estado escasamente poblado, limitado a asentamientos pequeños y en su mayoría sin fortificar. El estado de Jerusalén en el siglo X a. C. es un tema importante de debate entre los estudiosos. Jerusalén no muestra evidencia de una actividad residencial israelita significativa hasta el siglo IX a. C. Por otro lado, estructuras administrativas importantes como la Estructura de piedra escalonada y la Estructura de piedra grande, que originalmente formaban parte de una estructura, contienen cultura material de antes. Las ruinas de una importante fortaleza militar juhadita, Tel Arad, también se han encontrado en el Negev, y una colección de órdenes militares encontradas allí sugieren que la alfabetización estaba presente en todas las filas del ejército juhadita. Esto sugiere que la alfabetización no se limitó a una pequeña élite, lo que indica la presencia de una infraestructura educativa sustancial en Judá. [46] [47] [48] [49] [50]

En el siglo VII, Jerusalén creció hasta contener una población muchas veces mayor que antes y logró un claro dominio sobre sus vecinos. [51] Esto ocurrió al mismo tiempo que Israel estaba siendo destruido por el Imperio Neoasirio, y probablemente fue el resultado de un acuerdo de cooperación con los asirios para establecer a Judá como un estado vasallo asirio que controlaba la valiosa industria del olivo. [51] Judá prosperó como un estado vasallo (a pesar de una desastrosa rebelión contra Senaquerib), pero en la última mitad del siglo VII a. C., Asiria colapsó repentinamente y la consiguiente competencia entre Egipto y el Imperio neobabilónico por el control de la tierra. llevó a la destrucción de Judá en una serie de campañas entre 597 y 582. [51]

La Judá de Babilonia sufrió un fuerte declive tanto en la economía como en la población [52] y perdió el Negev, la Sefela y parte de la región montañosa de Judea, incluida Hebrón, debido a las invasiones de Edom y otros vecinos. [53] Jerusalén, aunque probablemente no estaba totalmente abandonada, era mucho más pequeña que antes, y la ciudad de Mizpa en Benjamín, en la sección norte relativamente ilesa del reino, se convirtió en la capital de la nueva provincia babilónica de Yehud Medinata. [54] (This was standard Babylonian practice: when the Philistine city of Ashkalon was conquered in 604, the political, religious and economic elite [but not the bulk of the population] was banished and the administrative centre shifted to a new location). [55] There is also a strong probability that for most or all of the period the temple at Bethel in Benjamin replaced that at Jerusalem, boosting the prestige of Bethel's priests (the Aaronites) against those of Jerusalem (the Zadokites), now in exile in Babylon. [56]

The Babylonian conquest entailed not just the destruction of Jerusalem and its temple, but the liquidation of the entire infrastructure which had sustained Judah for centuries. [57] The most significant casualty was the state ideology of "Zion theology," [58] the idea that the god of Israel had chosen Jerusalem for his dwelling-place and that the Davidic dynasty would reign there forever. [59] The fall of the city and the end of Davidic kingship forced the leaders of the exile community – kings, priests, scribes and prophets – to reformulate the concepts of community, faith and politics. [60] The exile community in Babylon thus became the source of significant portions of the Hebrew Bible: Isaiah 40–55 Ezekiel the final version of Jeremiah the work of the hypothesized priestly source in the Pentateuch and the final form of the history of Israel from Deuteronomy to 2 Kings. [61] Theologically, the Babylonian exiles were responsible for the doctrines of individual responsibility and universalism (the concept that one god controls the entire world) and for the increased emphasis on purity and holiness. [61] Most significantly, the trauma of the exile experience led to the development of a strong sense of Hebrew identity distinct from other peoples, [62] with increased emphasis on symbols such as circumcision and Sabbath-observance to sustain that distinction. [63]

The concentration of the biblical literature on the experience of the exiles in Babylon disguises the fact that the great majority of the population remained in Judah for them, life after the fall of Jerusalem probably went on much as it had before. [64] It may even have improved, as they were rewarded with the land and property of the deportees, much to the anger of the community of exiles remaining in Babylon. [65] The assassination around 582 of the Babylonian governor by a disaffected member of the former royal House of David provoked a Babylonian crackdown, possibly reflected in the Book of Lamentations, but the situation seems to have soon stabilised again. [66] Nevertheless, those unwalled cities and towns that remained were subject to slave raids by the Phoenicians and intervention in their internal affairs by Samaritans, Arabs, and Ammonites. [67]

When Babylon fell to the Persian Cyrus the Great in 539 BCE, Judah (or Yehud medinata, the "province of Yehud") became an administrative division within the Persian empire. Cyrus was succeeded as king by Cambyses, who added Egypt to the empire, incidentally transforming Yehud and the Philistine plain into an important frontier zone. His death in 522 was followed by a period of turmoil until Darius the Great seized the throne in about 521. Darius introduced a reform of the administrative arrangements of the empire including the collection, codification and administration of local law codes, and it is reasonable to suppose that this policy lay behind the redaction of the Jewish Torah. [68] After 404 the Persians lost control of Egypt, which became Persia's main rival outside Europe, causing the Persian authorities to tighten their administrative control over Yehud and the rest of the Levant. [69] Egypt was eventually reconquered, but soon afterward Persia fell to Alexander the Great, ushering in the Hellenistic period in the Levant.

Yehud's population over the entire period was probably never more than about 30,000 and that of Jerusalem no more than about 1,500, most of them connected in some way to the Temple. [70] According to the biblical history, one of the first acts of Cyrus, the Persian conqueror of Babylon, was to commission Jewish exiles to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their Temple, a task which they are said to have completed c. 515. [71] Yet it was probably not until the middle of the next century, at the earliest, that Jerusalem again became the capital of Judah. [72] The Persians may have experimented initially with ruling Yehud as a Davidic client-kingdom under descendants of Jehoiachin, [73] but by the mid–5th century BCE, Yehud had become, in practice, a theocracy, ruled by hereditary high priests, [74] with a Persian-appointed governor, frequently Jewish, charged with keeping order and seeing that taxes (tribute) were collected and paid. [75] According to the biblical history, Ezra and Nehemiah arrived in Jerusalem in the middle of the 5th century BCE, the former empowered by the Persian king to enforce the Torah, the latter holding the status of governor with a royal commission to restore Jerusalem's walls. [76] The biblical history mentions tension between the returnees and those who had remained in Yehud, the returnees rebuffing the attempt of the "peoples of the land" to participate in the rebuilding of the Temple this attitude was based partly on the exclusivism that the exiles had developed while in Babylon and, probably, also partly on disputes over property. [77] During the 5th century BCE, Ezra and Nehemiah attempted to re-integrate these rival factions into a united and ritually pure society, inspired by the prophecies of Ezekiel and his followers. [78]

The Persian era, and especially the period between 538 and 400 BCE, laid the foundations for the unified Judaic religion and the beginning of a scriptural canon. [79] Other important landmarks in this period include the replacement of Hebrew as the everyday language of Judah by Aramaic (although Hebrew continued to be used for religious and literary purposes) [80] and Darius's reform of the empire's bureaucracy, which may have led to extensive revisions and reorganizations of the Jewish Torah. [68] The Israel of the Persian period consisted of descendants of the inhabitants of the old kingdom of Judah, returnees from the Babylonian exile community, Mesopotamians who had joined them or had been exiled themselves to Samaria at a far earlier period, Samaritans, and others. [81]

The beginning of the Hellenistic Period is marked by the conquest of Alexander the Great (333 BCE). When Alexander died in 323, he had no heirs that were able to take his place as ruler of his empire, so his generals divided the empire among themselves. [82] Ptolemy I asserted himself as the ruler of Egypt in 322 and seized Yehud Medinata in 320, but his successors lost it in 198 to the Seleucids of Syria. At first, relations between Seleucids and Jews were cordial, but the attempt of Antiochus IV Epiphanes (174–163) to impose Hellenic cults on Judea sparked the Maccabean Revolt that ended in the expulsion of the Seleucids and the establishment of an independent Jewish kingdom under the Hasmonean dynasty. Some modern commentators see this period also as a civil war between orthodox and hellenized Jews. [83] [84] Hasmonean kings attempted to revive the Judah described in the Bible: a Jewish monarchy ruled from Jerusalem and including all territories once ruled by David and Solomon. In order to carry out this project, the Hasmoneans forcibly converted one-time Moabites, Edomites, and Ammonites to Judaism, as well as the lost kingdom of Israel. [85] Some scholars argue that the Hasmonean dynasty institutionalized the final Jewish biblical canon. [86]

Ptolemaic rule Edit

Ptolemy I took control of Egypt in 322 BCE after the death of Alexander the Great. He also took control of Yehud Medinata in 320 because he was very aware that it was a great place to attack Egypt from and was also a great defensive position. However, there were others who also had their eyes on that area. Another former general, Antigonus Monophthalmus, had driven out the satrap of Babylon, Seleucus, in 317 and continued on towards the Levant. Seleucus found refuge with Ptolemy and they both rallied troops against Antigonus' son Demetrius, since Antigonus had retreated back to Asia Minor. Demetrius was defeated at the battle of Gaza and Ptolemy regained control of Yehud Medinata. However, not soon after this Antigonus came back and forced Ptolemy to retreat back to Egypt. This went on until the Battle of Ipsus in 301 where Seleucus' armies defeated Antigonus. Seleucus was given the areas of Syria and Palestine, but Ptolemy would not give up those lands, causing the Syrian Wars between the Ptolemies and Seleucids. Not much is known about the happenings of those in Yehud Medinata from the time of Alexander's death until the Battle of Ipsus due to the frequent battles. [87] At first, the Jews were content with Ptolemy's rule over them. His reign brought them peace and economic stability. He also allowed them to keep their religious practices, so long as they paid their taxes and didn't rebel. [88] After Ptolemy I came Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who was able to keep the territory of Yehud Medinata and brought the dynasty to the peak of its power. He was victorious in both the first and second Syrian Wars, but after trying to end the conflict with the Seleucids by arranging a marriage between his daughter Berenice and the Seleucid king Antiochus II, he died. The arranged marriage did not work and Berenice, Antiochus, and their child were killed from an order of Antiochus' former wife. This was one of the reasons for the third Syrian War. Before all of this, Ptolemy II fought and defeated the Nabataeans. In order to enforce his hold on them, he reinforced many cities in Palestine and built new ones. As a result of this, more Greeks and Macedonians moved to those new cities and brought over their customs and culture, or Hellenism. The Ptolemaic Rule also gave rise to 'tax farmers'. These were the bigger farmers who collected the high taxes of the smaller farmers. These farmers made a lot of money off of this, but it also put a rift between the aristocracy and everyone else. During the end of the Third Syrian War, the high priest Onias II would not pay the tax to the Ptolemy III Euergetes. It is thought that this shows a turning point in the Jew's support of the Ptolemies. [89] The Fourth and Fifth Syrian Wars marked the end of the Ptolemaic control of Palestine. Both of these wars hurt Palestine more than the previous three. That and the combination of the ineffective rulers Ptolemy IV Philopater and Ptolemy V and the might of the large Seleucid army ended the century-long rule of the Ptolemaic Dynasty over Palestine. [90]

Seleucid rule and the Maccabean Revolt Edit

The Seleucid Rule of the Holy Land began in 198 BCE under Antiochus III. He, like the Ptolemies, let the Jews keep their religion and customs and even went so far as to encourage the rebuilding of the temple and city after they welcomed him so warmly into Jerusalem. [91] However, Antiochus owed the Romans a great deal of money. In order to raise this money, he decided to rob a temple. The people at the temple of Bel in Elam were not pleased, so they killed Antiochus and everyone helping him in 187 BCE. He was succeeded by his son Seleucus IV Philopater. He simply defended the area from Ptolemy V before being murdered by his minister in 175. His brother Antiochus IV Epiphanes took his place. Before he killed the king, the minister Heliodorus had tried to steal the treasures from the temple in Jerusalem. He was informed of this by a rival of the current High Priest Onias III. Heliodorus was not allowed into the temple, but it required Onias to go explain to the king why one of his ministers was denied access somewhere. In his absence, his rivals put up a new high priest. Onias' brother Jason (a Hellenized version of Joshua) took his place. [92] Now with Jason as high priest and Antiochus IV as king, many Jews adopted Hellenistic ways. Some of these ways, as stated in the Book of 1 Maccabees, were the building of a gymnasium, finding ways to hide their circumcision, and just generally not abiding by the holy covenant. [93] This led to the beginning of the Maccabean Revolt.

According to the Book of Maccabees, many Jews were not happy with the way Hellenism had spread into Judea. Some of these Jews were Mattathias and his sons. [93] Mattathias refused to offer sacrifice when the king told him to. He killed a Jew who was going to do so as well as the king's representative. Because of this, Mattathias and his sons had to flee. This marks the true beginning of the Maccabean Revolt. Judas Maccabeus became the leader of the rebels. He proved to be a successful general, defeating an army led by Apollonius. They started to catch the attention of King Antiochus IV in 165, who told his chancellor to put an end to the revolt. The chancellor, Lysias, sent three generals to do just that, but they were all defeated by the Maccabees. Soon after, Lysias went himself but, according to 1 and 2 Maccabees he was defeated. There is evidence to show that it was not that simple and that there was negotiation, but Lysias still left. After the death of Antiochus IV in 164, his son, Antiochus V, gave the Jews religious freedom. Lysias claimed to be his regent. Around this time was the re-dedication of the temple. During the siege of the Acra, one of Judas' brothers, Eleazor, was killed. The Maccabees had to retreat back to Jerusalem, where they should have been beaten badly. However, Lysias had to pull out because of a contradiction of who was to be regent for Antiochus V. Shortly after, both were killed by Demetrius I Soter who became the new king. The new high priest, Alcimus, had come to Jerusalem with the company of an army led by Bacchides. [94] A group of scribes called the Hasideans asked him for his word that he would not harm anyone. He agreed, but killed sixty of them. [95] Around this time Judas was able to make a treaty with the Romans. Soon after this, Judas was killed in Jerusalem fighting Bacchides' army. His brother Jonathan succeeded him. For eight years, Jonathan didn't do much. However, in 153 the Seleucid Empire started to face some problems. Jonathan used this chance to exchange his services of troops for Demetrius so that he could take back Jerusalem. He was appointed high priest by Alexander Balas for the same thing. When conflicts between Egypt and the Seleucids arose, Jonathan occupied the Acra. As conflicts over the throne arose, he completely took control of the Acra. But in 142 he was killed. [96] His brother Simon took his place. [97]

The Hasmonean Dynasty Edit

Simon was nominated for the title of high priest, general, and leader by a "great assembly". He reached out to Rome to have them guarantee that Judea would be an independent land. Antiochus VII wanted the cities of Gadara, Joppa, and the Acra back. He also wanted a very large tribute. Simon only wanted to pay a fraction of that for only two of the cities, so Antiochus sent his general Cendebaeus to attack. The general was killed and the army fled. Simon and two of his sons were killed in a plot to overthrow the Hasmoneans. His last remaining son, John Hyrcanus, was supposed to be killed as well, but he was informed of the plan and rushed to Jerusalem to keep it safe. Hyrcanus had many issues to deal with as the new high priest. Antiochus invaded Judea and besieged Jerusalem in 134 BCE. Due to lack of food, Hyrcanus had to make a deal with Antiochus. He had to pay a large sum of money, tear down the walls of the city, acknowledge Seleucid power over Judea, and help the Seleucids fight against the Parthians. Hyrcanus agreed to this, but the war against the Parthians didn't work and Antiochus died in 128. Hyrcanus was able to take back Judea and keep his power. John Hyrcanus also kept good relations with the Roman and the Egyptians, owing to the large number of Jews living there, and conquered Transjordan, Samaria, [98] and Idumea (also known as Edom). [99] [100] Aristobulus I was the first Hasmonean priest-king. He defied his father's wishes that his mother should take over the government and instead had her and all of his brothers except for one thrown in prison. The one not thrown in prison was later killed on his orders. The most significant thing he did during his one-year-reign was conquer most of Galilee. After his death, he was succeeded by his brother Alexander Jannaeus, who was only concerned with power and conquest. He also married his brother's widow, showing little respect for Jewish law. His first conquest was Ptolemais. The people called to Ptolemy IX for aid, as he was in Cyprus. However, it was his mother, Cleopatra III, who came to help Alexander and not her son. Alexander was not a popular ruler. This caused a civil war in Jerusalem that lasted for six years. After Alexander Jannaeus' death, his widow became ruler, but not high priest. The end of the Hasmonean Dynasty was in 63 when the Romans came at the request of the current priest-king Aristobulus II and his competitor Hyrcanus II. In 63 BCE the Roman general Pompey conquered Jerusalem and the Romans put Hyrcanus II up as high priest, but Judea became a client-kingdom of Rome. The dynasty came to an end in 40 BCE when Herod was crowned king of Judah by the Romans. With their help, Herod had seized Jerusalem by 37. [101]

The Herodian Dynasty Edit

In 40–39 BCE, Herod the Great was appointed King of the Jews by the Roman Senate, and in 6 CE the last ethnarch of Judea, a descendant of Herod's, was deposed by Emperor Augustus, his territories combined with Idumea and Samaria and annexed as Iudaea Province under direct Roman administration. [102]

Henotheism Edit

Henotheism is defined in the dictionary as adherence to one god out of several. [103] Many scholars believe that before monotheism in ancient Israel came a transitional period in between polytheism and monotheism. In this transitional period many followers of the Israelite religion worshiped the god Yahweh but did not deny the existence of other deities accepted throughout the region. [104] Some scholars attribute this henotheistic period to influences from Mesopotamia. There are strong arguments that Mesopotamia, particularly Assyria shared the concept of the cult of Ashur with Israel. [105] This concept entailed adopting the gods of other cultures into their pantheon, with Ashur as the supreme god of all the others. [105] This concept is believed to have influenced the transitional period in Israelite religion in which many people were henotheists. Israelite religion shares many characteristics with Canaanite religion, which itself was formed with influence from Mesopotamian religious traditions. [106] Using Canaanite religion as a base was natural due to the fact that the Canaanite culture inhabited the same region prior to the emergence of Israelite culture. [107] Canaanite religion was a polytheistic religion in which many gods represented unique concepts. Many scholars agree that the Israelite god of Yahweh was adopted from the Canaanite god El. [107] El was the creation god and as such it makes sense for the Israelite supreme god to have El's characteristics. Monotheism in the region of ancient Israel and Judah did not take hold over night and during the intermediate stages most people are believed to have been henotheistic. [106] Before the emergence of Yahweh as the patron god of the region of ancient Israel and Judah not all worshiped him alone, or even at all. The word "Israel" is based on the name El rather than Yahweh. [108] [109] [110]

During this intermediate period of henotheism many families worshiped different gods. Religion was very much centered around the family, as opposed to the community. People sparsely populated the region of Israel and Judah during the time of Moses. As such many different areas worshiped different gods, due to social isolation. [111] It was not until later on in Israelite history that people started to worship Yahweh alone and fully convert to monotheistic values. That switch occurred with the growth of power and influence of the Israelite kingdom and its rulers and can be read about further in the Iron Age Yahwism section below. Evidence from the Bible suggests that henotheism did exist: "They [the Hebrews] went and served alien gods and paid homage to them, gods of whom they had no experience and whom he [Yahweh] did not allot to them" (Deut. 29.26). Many believe that this quote goes to show that the early Israelite kingdom followed similar traditions as ancient Mesopotamia, where each major urban center had a supreme god. Each culture then embraced their patron god but did not deny the existence of other cultures' patron gods. In Assyria, the patron god was Ashur, and in ancient Israel, it was Yahweh however, both Israelite and Assyrian cultures recognized each other's deities during this period. [111]

Some scholars have used the Bible as evidence to argue that most of the people alive during the events recounted in the Old Testament, including Moses, were most likely henotheists. There are many quotes from the Old Testament support this point of view. One quote from Jewish and Christian tradition that supports this claim is the first commandment which in its entirety reads "I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. You shall have no other gods before me." [112] This quote does not deny the existence of other gods it merely states that Jews and Christians should consider Yahweh or God the supreme god, incomparable to other supernatural beings. Some scholars attribute the concept of angels and demons found in Judaism and Christianity to the tradition of henotheism. Instead of completely getting rid of the concept of other supernatural beings, these religions changed former deities into angels and demons. [106] Yahweh became the supreme god governing angels, demons and humans, with angels and demons considered more powerful than the average human. This tradition of believing in multiple forms of supernatural beings is attributed by many to the traditions of ancient Mesopotamia and Canaan and their pantheons of gods. Earlier influences from Mesopotamia and Canaan were important in creating the foundation of Israelite religion consistent with the Kingdoms of ancient Israel and Judah, and have since left lasting impacts on some of the biggest and most widespread religions in our world today.

Iron Age Yahwism Edit

The religion of the Israelites of Iron Age I, like the Ancient Canaanite religion from which it evolved and other religions of the ancient Near East, was based on a cult of ancestors and worship of family gods (the "gods of the fathers"). [113] [114] With the emergence of the monarchy at the beginning of Iron Age II the kings promoted their family god, Yahweh, as the god of the kingdom, but beyond the royal court, religion continued to be both polytheistic and family-centered. [115] The major deities were not numerous – El, Asherah, and Yahweh, with Baal as a fourth god, and perhaps Shamash (the sun) in the early period. [116] At an early stage El and Yahweh became fused and Asherah did not continue as a separate state cult, [116] although she continued to be popular at a community level until Persian times. [117]

Yahweh, the national god of both Israel and Judah, seems to have originated in Edom and Midian in southern Canaan and may have been brought to Israel by the Kenites and Midianites at an early stage. [118] There is a general consensus among scholars that the first formative event in the emergence of the distinctive religion described in the Bible was triggered by the destruction of Israel by Assyria in c. 722 BCE. Refugees from the northern kingdom fled to Judah, bringing with them laws and a prophetic tradition of Yahweh. This religion was subsequently adopted by the landowners of Judah, who in 640 BCE placed the eight-year-old Josiah on the throne. Judah at this time was a vassal state of Assyria, but Assyrian power collapsed in the 630s, and around 622 Josiah and his supporters launched a bid for independence expressed as loyalty to "Yahweh alone".

The Babylonian exile and Second Temple Judaism Edit

According to the Deuteronomists, as scholars call these Judean nationalists, the treaty with Yahweh would enable Israel's god to preserve both the city and the king in return for the people's worship and obedience. The destruction of Jerusalem, its Temple, and the Davidic dynasty by Babylon in 587/586 BCE was deeply traumatic and led to revisions of the national mythos during the Babylonian exile. This revision was expressed in the Deuteronomistic history, the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings, which interpreted the Babylonian destruction as divinely-ordained punishment for the failure of Israel's kings to worship Yahweh to the exclusion of all other deities. [119]

The Second Temple period (520 BCE – 70 CE) differed in significant ways from what had gone before. [120] Strict monotheism emerged among the priests of the Temple establishment during the seventh and sixth centuries BCE, as did beliefs regarding angels and demons. [121] At this time, circumcision, dietary laws, and Sabbath-observance gained more significance as symbols of Jewish identity, and the institution of the synagogue became increasingly important, and most of the biblical literature, including the Torah, was written or substantially revised during this time. [122]


Megiddo Yields Unexpected Treasures

Archaeological excavations at Megiddo began early in the 20th century and continue today, according to Wikipedia. Some scholars believe the area was inhabited as early as 7,000 BC, but the earliest significant remains date to 4,500-3,500 BC. The city of Megiddo reached its largest size in the Middle Bronze Age and was abandoned around 586 BC.

Model depicting the Megiddo tomb chamber before it was opened. (Credit: Adam Prins and Robert Homsher)

Israel Finkelstein and Mario Martin of Tel Aviv University and Matthew Adams of the W.F. Albright institute of Archaeology have been conducting archaeological research at Megiddo since 1994. These scholars have reported an extraordinary find. According to a National Geographic online story, they excavated a burial chamber with three intact remains dated to early in the 15th Century BC.

“A child between the ages of eight and 10, a woman in her mid 30s and a man aged between 40-60—adorned with gold and silver jewelry including rings, brooches, bracelets and pins,” reports author Philippe Bohstom in the article published March 13, 2018. “The male body was discovered wearing a gold necklace and had been crowned with a gold diadem, and all of the objects demonstrate a high level of skill and artistry.”

The find was shocking because few undisturbed burials are discovered by archaeologists. Most tombs have been robbed of their most precious contents and the human remains scattered about. Though other human remains were found in back, the burial chamber at Megiddo seems to have been left untouched since the last three occupants were interred approximately 3,600 years ago.

What was most shocking was the wealth displayed in this burial.

  • A detail of the 3,600-year-old gold torque necklace worn by the adult male occupant of the elite tomb reveals a graceful water bird. (Credit: Peter Lanyi, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem)
  • Dozens of incised ivory plaques discovered in the tomb at Megiddo once covered a wooden box that no longer exists. (Credit: Peter Lanyi, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem)

“We are speaking of an elite family burial because of the monumentality of the structure, the rich fines and because of the fact that the burial is located in close proximity to the royal palace,” the article quotes Finkelstein as saying.

The archeologists will be particularly interested in learning whether the remains of the royals in the tomb are a genetic match with the remains of common people unearthed at Megiddo. DNA testing may tell them whether the “royals” and the “commoners” were of the same background—or different.


Funeral Lamentations

The dead would be wept and lamented over. Professional mourners and wailing women would join the relatives (Amos 5:16 Jeremiah 9:17 ff 11 Ch. 35:25) to make lamentation.

A spontaneous lament could be amplified into a lament or ‘qinah’ – a poem composed in a special rhythm and sung by professionals, many of whom were women (Jeremiah 9:17-22).

Such women probably had a repertoire of laments which could be adapted to different occasions, but sometimes the poems were specially composed.

The most famous of these are the laments of David for Saul and Jonathan (II Samuel 1:17-27) and for Abner (II Samuel 3:33-34.


5 Thank Sicilians For Creating Italy&rsquos Culinary Symbol

Italian wine was thought to have come about around 1200 BC, possibly as a tasty result of Greek colonization. But some late-Copper Age terra-cotta jars from a Sicilian limestone cave on Monte Kronio push that date all the way back to the fourth millennium BC.

Inside the storage jars, archaeologists found 6,000-year-old tartaric acid, the grapes&rsquo main acid component, as well as its salt, also known as cream of tartar. It&rsquos a result of fermentation and a sign of winemaking. This direct evidence trumps many previous ancient, potentially vinous discoveries, which involved only the circumstantial evidence that lots of grapes were being grown. [6]


ARTÍCULOS RELACIONADOS

In the temple the team found an amulet inspired by the Egyptian goddess Hathor who was worshipped by miners and said to welcome the dead to the afterlife.

It wasn't just Egyptian gods represented in the temple, they also found statuettes of Baal - a god not worshipped in the country and of purely Canaanite origin.

It was one of two statues of smiting gods and the type of figurines are found in the area in temples from the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age.

They are usually of Baal or Resheph, who are both known as war gods, 'although it is impossible to identify our figurines with either due to the lack of clear attributes.'

Weapons and jewellery were among the items discovered at the 12th century BC Canaanite temple at Lachish

Four pieces of a gilded bronze situla bearing an engraved hieroglyphic inscription were found within the remains of the temple

They also found bronze cauldrons, daggers and axe heads adorned with imagery common to Egypt including bird images, scarabs and a bottle inscribed with the name Ramses II - a powerful Egyptian pharaoh.

During the period the template originated the people of Lachish controlled large parts of the Jusean lowlands and the city was one of the most important in the area.

Canaanites and ancient Egyptians had a mutual influence on one another, according to Garfinkel, at one point up to about 1549 BC the Canaanites actually ruled Egypt - but that changed with the rise of King Tutankhamun and Nefertiti.

A significant amount of pottery was uncovered in the Canaanite temple including urns, bowls and other containers

When the famous rulers came to power ancient Egypt also came to the height of its success and violently swept over what is now Israel.

The city of Lachish where the temple was found had a very bloody history - first arising as a powerful Canaanite stronghold around 1800 BC.

It lasted a few hundred years before being destroyed in 1550 BC by the Egyptians as they rolled over the region during the reign of Pharaoh Thutmose III.

WHAT WAS THE CITY OF LACHISH AND WHAT HAPPENED TO IT?

The city of Lachish was the second most important stronghold for the Canaanites in the southern kingdom of Judah during the late Bronze Age.

It is situated southwest of Jerusalem and is now represented by a national park called Tel Lachish - featuring a distinctive mound of Earth.

What was the ancient city of Lachish is now represented by a mound of Earth in the national park - Tel Lachish

The city was heavily fortified during the Middle Bronze Age by a sloping bank and a fosse - it played an important role in the history of the region.

During the Late Bronze Age it was a large Canaanite city-state.

Lachish had an intense and very bloody history, just like most of the towns and cities located in the region.

It first began to rise as a major Canaanite city around 1800 BC and lasted about 400 years before it was destroyed - for the first time - in 1550 BC.

This was at the hand of the Egyptians under Pharaoh Thutmose III as they moved over the area during the 18th Dynasty expansion.

The Canaanites rebuilt the city but it was destroyed again in 1300 BC - they rebuilt it again for a second time.

About 60 years later the city was destroyed again - about 1150 BC.

The site of Lachish was first found by William Foxwell Albright in 1929. He is considered the founding father of Biblical archaeology.


Religión

El, the Canaanite creator deity, Megiddo, Stratum VII, Late Bronze II, 1400–1200 BC, bronze with gold leaf – Oriental Institute Museum, University of Chicago – DSC07734 The Canaanite god El, who may have been the precursor to the Israelite god Yahweh. / Photo by Daderot, Wikimedia Commons

Henotheism is defined in the dictionary as adherence to one god out of several. Many scholars believe that before monotheism in ancient Israel came a transitional period in between polytheism and monotheism. In this transitional period many followers of the Israelite religion worshiped the god Yahweh but did not deny the existence of other deities accepted throughout the region. Some scholars attribute this henotheistic period to influences from Mesopotamia. There are strong arguments that Mesopotamia, particularly Assyria shared the concept of the cult of Ashur with Israel.

This concept entailed adopting the gods of other cultures into their pantheon, with Ashur as the supreme god of all the others. This concept is believed to have influenced the transitional period in Israelite religion in which many people were henotheists. Israelite religion shares many characteristics with Canaanite religion, which itself was formed with influence from Mesopotamian religious traditions. Using Canaanite religion as a base was natural due to the fact that the Canaanite culture inhabited the same region prior to the emergence of Israelite culture. Canaanite religion was a polytheistic religion in which many gods represented unique concepts. Many scholars agree that the Israelite god of Yahweh was adopted from the Canaanite god El. El was the creation god and as such it makes sense for the Israelite supreme god to have El’s characteristics. Monotheism in the region of ancient Israel and Judah did not take hold over night and during the intermediate stages most people are believed to have been henotheistic. Before the emergence of Yahweh as the patron god of the region of ancient Israel and Judah not all worshiped him alone, or even at all. The word “Israel” is based on the name El rather than Yahweh.

During this intermediate period of henotheism many families worshiped different gods. Religion was very much centered around the family, as opposed to the community. People sparsely populated the region of Israel and Judah during the time of Moses. As such many different areas worshiped different gods, due to social isolation. It was not until later on in Israelite history that people started to worship Yahweh alone and fully convert to monotheistic values. That switch occurred with the growth of power and influence of the Israelite kingdom and its rulers and can be read about further in the Iron Age Yahwism section below. Evidence from the bible suggests that henotheism did exist: “They [the Hebrews] went and served alien gods and paid homage to them, gods of whom they had no experience and whom he [Yahweh] did not allot to them” (Deut. 29.26). Many believe that this quote goes to show that the early Israelite kingdom followed similar traditions as ancient Mesopotamia, where each major urban center had a supreme god. Each culture then embraced their patron god but did not deny the existence of other cultures’ patron gods. In Assyria, the patron god was Ashur, and in ancient Israel, it was Yahweh however, both Israelite and Assyrian cultures recognized each other’s deities during this period.

Some scholars have used the Bible as evidence to argue that most of the people alive during the events recounted in the Old Testament, including Moses, were most likely henotheists. There are many quotes from the Old Testament support this point of view. One quote from Jewish and Christian tradition that supports this claim is the first commandment which in its entirety reads “I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. You shall have no other gods before me.” This quote does not deny the existence of other gods it merely states that Jews and Christians should consider Yahweh or God the supreme god, incomparable to other supernatural beings. Some scholars attribute the concept of angels and demons found in Judaism and Christianity to the tradition of henotheism. Instead of completely getting rid of the concept of other supernatural beings, these religions changed former deities into angels and demons. Yahweh became the supreme god governing angels, demons and humans, with angels and demons considered more powerful than the average human. This tradition of believing in multiple forms of supernatural beings is attributed by many to the traditions of ancient Mesopotamia and Canaan and their pantheons of gods. Earlier influences from Mesopotamia and Canaan were important in creating the foundation of Israelite religion consistent with the Kingdoms of ancient Israel and Judah, and have since left lasting impacts on some of the biggest and most widespread religions in our world today.

Iron Age Yahwism

The religion of the Israelites of Iron Age I, like the Ancient Canaanite religion from which it evolved and other religions of the ancient Near East, was based on a cult of ancestors and worship of family gods (the “gods of the fathers”). With the emergence of the monarchy at the beginning of Iron Age II the kings promoted their family god, Yahweh, as the god of the kingdom, but beyond the royal court, religion continued to be both polytheistic and family-centered. The major deities were not numerous – El, Asherah, and Yahweh, with Baal as a fourth god, and perhaps Shamash (the sun) in the early period. At an early stage El and Yahweh became fused and Asherah did not continue as a separate state cult, although she continued to be popular at a community level until Persian times.

Yahweh, the national god of both Israel and Judah, seems to have originated in Edom and Midian in southern Canaan and may have been brought to Israel by the Kenites and Midianites at an early stage. There is a general consensus among scholars that the first formative event in the emergence of the distinctive religion described in the Bible was triggered by the destruction of Israel by Assyria in c. 722 BCE. Refugees from the northern kingdom fled to Judah, bringing with them laws and a prophetic tradition of Yahweh. This religion was subsequently adopted by the landowners of Judah, who in 640 BCE placed the eight-year-old Josiah on the throne. Judah at this time was a vassal state of Assyria, but Assyrian power collapsed in the 630s, and around 622 Josiah and his supporters launched a bid for independence expressed as loyalty to “Yahweh alone”.

The Babylonian Exile and Second Temple Judaism

Model of Herod’s Temple – the Second Temple after being rebuilt by Herod – in the Israel Museum, created in 1966 as part of the Holyland Model of Jerusalem. The model was inspired by the writings of Josephus. / Photo by Ariely, Wikimedia Commons

According to the Deuteronomists, as scholars call these Judean nationalists, the treaty with Yahweh would enable Israel’s god to preserve both the city and the king in return for the people’s worship and obedience. The destruction of Jerusalem, its Temple, and the Davidic dynasty by Babylon in 587/586 BCE was deeply traumatic and led to revisions of the national mythos during the Babylonian exile. This revision was expressed in the Deuteronomistic history, the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings, which interpreted the Babylonian destruction as divinely-ordained punishment for the failure of Israel’s kings to worship Yahweh to the exclusion of all other deities.

The Second Temple period (520 BCE – 70 CE) differed in significant ways from what had gone before. Strict monotheism emerged among the priests of the Temple establishment during the seventh and sixth centuries BCE, as did beliefs regarding angels and demons. At this time, circumcision, dietary laws, and Sabbath-observance gained more significance as symbols of Jewish identity, and the institution of the synagogue became increasingly important, and most of the biblical literature, including the Torah, was written or substantially revised during this time.


1 Dogs Became Cuisine Thousands Of Years Ago

Dog has been on the menu for thousands of years in some cultures. And in an ancient Chinese tomb discovered in 2010, dog meat accompanied the departed to the underworld.

The tomb in Xian in Shaanxi province held a 20-centimeter-tall (8 in), 2,400-year-old sealed cooking vessel made of bronze. Inside, researchers found remnants of ancient bone soup, though oxidation had turned the contents and the container green and mysterious.

Analysis revealed 37 bones belonging to a male dog, younger than one year in age. Along with the puppy soup, an airtight bronze container held wine. It’s pretty luxurious for a death offering, suggesting that the deceased was a landowner or important military officer. [10]

Ivan writes about things for the internet. You can contact him at [email protected] .


Ver el vídeo: Remains of Horned Nephilim Found in North America (Mayo 2022).