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La lucha de Sudbury, 1676: una victoria decisiva de los nativos americanos en la guerra del rey Felipe

La lucha de Sudbury, 1676: una victoria decisiva de los nativos americanos en la guerra del rey Felipe


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El 21 de abril de 1676 EC, una compañía de ochenta milicianos de Massachusetts luchó a muerte contra un ejército de nativos americanos de quinientos hombres en una de las batallas culminantes de la Guerra del Rey Felipe.


Lucha de Sudbury

El & # 160Lucha de Sudbury& # 160 (21 de abril de 1676) fue una batalla de & # 160King Philip's War, librada en lo que es hoy & # 160Sudbury & # 160and & # 160Wayland, Massachusetts, cuando aproximadamente quinientos & # 160Wampanoag, & # 160Nipmuc, & # 160Narragansett & # 160 nativos americanos & # 160Realizó el asentamiento fronterizo de Sudbury en & # 160Massachusetts Bay Colony. Compañías dispares de "milicianos ingleses" de los asentamientos cercanos marcharon en defensa de la ciudad, dos de los cuales fueron arrastrados a las emboscadas de los nativos y sufrieron grandes pérdidas. La batalla fue la última gran victoria de los nativos americanos en la Guerra del Rey Felipe antes de su derrota final en el sur de Nueva Inglaterra en agosto de 1676.


Ciudad de Sudbury, Massachusetts

A. La ciudad original de Sudbury fue fundada en 1639

  1. La ciudad original de Sudbury fue fundada (incorporada) hace más de 360 ​​años en 1639.

    Los primeros asentamientos coloniales permanentes en Sudbury tuvieron lugar en 1638.

    El contacto repetido con exploradores, comerciantes de pieles y pescadores europeos en el siglo XVI y principios del siglo XVII causó múltiples epidemias de viruela y otras enfermedades europeas en las tribus nativas americanas que vivían en lo que ahora llamamos Nueva Inglaterra.

    Antes de 1500, estas enfermedades europeas no existían en el área que llamamos Nueva Inglaterra.

  • Un ejemplo es la piedra de pulir que se muestra y describe en el & quotHistoric Sudbury Trail & quot en el sitio web de Town of Sudbury.

    La tierra de Sudbury ocupada por los colonos de Sudbury fue comprada a un nativo americano local llamado Cato (también escrito Karte) individualmente o con sus hermanos.

  • Tenga en cuenta que la colonia de la bahía de Massachusetts NO incluía grandes áreas del actual estado de MA como la colonia de Plymouth (ahora los actuales condados de MA de Plymouth, Bristol y Barnstable).

    & quotINLAND & quot significa por encima del flujo de las mareas del Océano Atlántico.

  • El PRIMERO (1635) fue el Pueblo original de Concord, entonces y ahora el vecino norteño inmediato de Sudbury, y el SEGUNDO (1636) fue el Pueblo original de Dedham.

    No había posibilidad de escapar en barco si era necesario.

    La ciudad original de Sudbury también incluía la mayoría de las ciudades actuales de Wayland y Maynard.

    Es importante señalar que los primeros asentamientos ocupados y esa característica central de un & quotPuritan Village & quot, la primera iglesia / casa de reuniones, estaban en tierras en la parte este de la Ciudad original de Sudbury que se encuentran dentro de la actual Ciudad de Wayland.

    La primera iglesia / casa de reuniones se construyó en 1643 en el sitio del actual cementerio norte de la ciudad de Wayland.

    North Cemetery está ubicado en el lado noreste de Old Sudbury Road (Ruta 27) aproximadamente a medio camino entre el semáforo en Wayland Center y el puente sobre el río Sudbury.

  • El río fue más difícil de cruzar durante gran parte del año en 1639 que el actual río Sudbury, normalmente plácido, cuyo flujo está controlado por presas aguas arriba y aguas abajo.

    El área dentro de la ciudad original de Watertown se extendía hacia el oeste hasta la frontera este de la ciudad original de Sudbury.

  • La ciudad original de Watertown era mucho más grande en área que la ciudad actual de Watertown y también incluía las ciudades actuales de Weston (el vecino oriental inmediato de Wayland) y Waltham.

    Varios de los primeros pobladores de la ciudad original de Sudbury habían vivido en o cerca de Sudbury, Suffolk, Inglaterra.

B. Guerra del Rey Felipe y la & quotSudbury Fight & quot

  1. La Guerra del Rey Felipe fue una de las guerras MÁS SIGNIFICATIVAS jamás libradas en América del Norte.

    Esta corta guerra duró en el sur de Nueva Inglaterra desde junio de 1675 hasta agosto de 1676.

    Recupere el control de sus antiguas tierras

    Su población se redujo en gran medida, lo que abrió aún más tierras para nuevos asentamientos coloniales.

    Este cambio comenzó en Nueva Inglaterra y con el tiempo se extendió a otras colonias.

    Quemando a cientos de mujeres, niños y ancianos nativos americanos vivos e indefensos hasta la muerte a la vez

  • La tasa de mortalidad per cápita total (nativos americanos + coloniales ingleses) en esta guerra CORTA fue aproximadamente VEINTE veces MÁS ALTA que la de la Guerra Civil de los Estados Unidos, la segunda peor guerra estadounidense según esta medida.

    Más de la mitad de las aproximadamente cien ciudades de Nueva Inglaterra resultaron dañadas o destruidas.

  • En este punto, la ciudad original de Sudbury se convirtió en una ciudad fronteriza, y la parte de la ciudad al oeste del río Sudbury (es decir, las actuales ciudades de Sudbury y Maynard) estaba más expuesta a sufrir daños.

    Las batallas resultantes de ese ataque se denominan "Lucha de Sudbury".

    Casi todas las muertes de civiles y soldados coloniales ingleses ocurrieron al OESTE del río.

  • La milicia de Sudbury y los soldados de otras ciudades pudieron luchar contra los atacantes nativos americanos y expulsarlos del área al este del río.
  • En este momento, las fuerzas nativas americanas hostiles controlaban completamente el campo de batalla al oeste del río, y probablemente podrían haber matado a muchos más soldados y civiles coloniales si hubieran continuado sus ataques después del anochecer.

    Sin embargo, algunos historiadores han especulado que la misión principal de las fuerzas nativas americanas hostiles en su ataque a la ciudad original de Sudbury era adquirir suministros muy necesarios de alimentos, armas, municiones y pólvora y destruir totalmente la ciudad para que pudieran atacar más fácilmente las ciudades costeras donde se podrían adquirir tiendas aún más grandes de estos artículos.

  • Si la "Lucha de Sudbury" jugó un papel importante en causar este punto de inflexión en la guerra, entonces la "Lucha de Sudbury" fue muy importante.

C.Los residentes de Sudbury desempeñaron un papel clave en la Guerra Revolucionaria de los EE. UU.

  1. En 1776, la ciudad de Sudbury se convirtió en parte del nuevo estado de Massachusetts (MA) en los recién constituidos Estados Unidos de América (EE. UU.).

  • Fueron muy activos en las batallas que tuvieron lugar el 19 de abril de 1775, y dos de ellos murieron en combate ese día.

    Consulte Las Compañías de Milicia y Minuto de Sudbury para obtener una descripción general e imágenes (haga clic en cada imagen para ver una versión más grande).

    La población dentro de los límites de la ciudad de 1775 era de 2160, que era más alta que muchas otras ciudades fuera de Boston en lo que se convertiría en el estado de Massachusetts.

  • Incluso los ancianos sirvieron en la primera muerte de la guerra de Sudbury fue un hombre de ochenta años el 19 de abril de 1775.

D. La ciudad original de Sudbury tenía un área más grande

  1. El área de 24.7 millas cuadradas de la actual Ciudad de Sudbury es MUCHO MENOR que el área de la Ciudad original de Sudbury en 1650.

    El área de la Ciudad original de Sudbury incluía la mayor parte del área dentro de las actuales Ciudades de Wayland y Maynard y toda el área dentro de la actual Ciudad de Sudbury.

    Una importante sustracción de tierra en 1780 cuando lo que ahora es la ciudad de Wayland se separó.

    Se otorgaron tres grandes subvenciones a la ciudad en 1638, 1640 y 1649.

  • Además, por lo general tomaba muchos años inspeccionar y ajustar adecuadamente los límites de las concesiones de tierras debido a la topografía difícil, nativos americanos hostiles, falta de equipo adecuado, disputas entre pueblos, etc.

    Este triángulo de tierra estaba inmediatamente al noroeste de lo que ahora se llama el río Assabet en lo que ahora es la ciudad de Maynard.

    La NUEVA Ciudad de East Sudbury incluyó la adición de 3.3 millas cuadradas hecha en 1721.

    La mayor parte de esta área de 12 millas cuadradas estaba al este del río Sudbury.

  • Pelham Island es el sitio de una concesión de tierras de 400 acres otorgada a Herbert Pelham y su suegro, el Sr. Walgrave, en 1639.

    El resto de la nueva ciudad de Maynard se formó a partir de aproximadamente 2,1 millas cuadradas de tierra inmediatamente al noroeste del río Assabet anexado a la ciudad de Stow.

  • Esta área de 2.1 millas cuadradas incluía el triángulo de tierra de aproximadamente 0.4 millas cuadradas transferido de Sudbury a Stow en 1730.

E. La escisión de East Sudbury (más tarde Wayland) en 1780

  1. Como se señaló en la sección anterior, la NUEVA Ciudad de East Sudbury se formó en 1780 a partir de tierras en la parte oriental de la Ciudad de Sudbury posterior a 1730.

    Muchas de las primeras ciudades de la bahía de Massachusetts y las colonias de Plymouth tenían originalmente un área MUCHO MÁS GRANDE que el área de la actual ciudad del mismo nombre.

    El Tribunal General normalmente concedió permiso para la formación de la Ciudad NUEVA si:

    Los vecinos de la zona que hicieron la petición acordaron cumplir con ciertos requisitos establecidos por el Tribunal General.

    El nivel de riqueza promedio más alto de los habitantes del lado este hizo que el lado este de la ciudad tuviera una evaluación total más alta que el lado oeste.

  • Además, las reglas del Tribunal General colocaron los registros de la Ciudad previos a la división con la Ciudad ANTIGUA, utilizando la misma lógica.

    Si la petición de 1714 de los residentes del lado oeste de la ciudad original de Sudbury hubiera sido aprobada por el Tribunal General, entonces los residentes del lado este (ahora la ciudad de Wayland) tendrían:

    Continuó viviendo en una ciudad llamada "Sudbury"

    A favor de la posición defendida por los occidentales durante varios años hasta 1714

    El corto plazo (impuestos más altos) y

    Murió a los 91 años en 2003.

F. Sudbury tuvo un crecimiento de diez veces en población durante los últimos sesenta años

  1. Esta sección describe solo la actual ciudad de Sudbury.

    La población de Sudbury se triplicó aproximadamente en la década de 1950 y luego se duplicó aproximadamente en la década de 1960.

    Sudbury fue una comunidad mayoritariamente rural con muchas pequeñas granjas hasta alrededor de 1940.

    Haga clic en Imágenes para ir a la página de la ciudad

G. Sudbury hoy

  1. Esta sección describe solo la actual ciudad de Sudbury.

  • Se puede llegar configurando las coordenadas de destino en su dispositivo de navegación GPS en 42.38256 ° de latitud norte y 71.41245 ° de longitud oeste.

H. Fuentes de información sobre la historia de Sudbury

  1. Alguna información está disponible en Internet.

    Los registros de la ciudad datan de la fundación de la ciudad original de Sudbury en 1639 y se describen como los más detallados y completos de las primeras ciudades de todas las colonias americanas.

    The History of Sudbury, Massachusetts 1638-1889, Alfred Sereno Hudson, 660 páginas, The Town of Sudbury, 1889 (reeditado por Sudbury Press en 1968), no tiene índice

  • Índices: A. S. Hudson History of Sudbury, Massachusetts 1638-1889 & amp The Annals of Sudbury, Wayland and Maynard, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, 119 páginas, editado por George D. Max, Indexador principal: Forrest D. Bradshaw, Sudbury Historical Society, 1983

I. El significado especial de la palabra "ciudad" en el estado de Massachusetts

  1. En la colonia de la bahía de Massachusetts, la palabra & quotTown & quot definía:

    Primero, un área dentro de ciertos límites

    De hecho, algunas MA & quot; Ciudades & quot contienen sólo áreas rurales.

    Las & quotCiudades & quot son entidades que solían ser & quot; Ciudades & quot, pero que han recibido permiso del Estado para utilizar una forma diferente de gobierno (que es más apropiada para entidades con mayor población).

    Haga clic repetidamente en el signo & quot + (Más) & quot en el menú del visor de Adobe para acercar un área en particular.


La lucha de Sudbury: punto de inflexión de la guerra

En los anales de la historia estadounidense hay algunas batallas que se consideran fundamentales para una guerra en sí, batallas que pueden haber cambiado el rumbo de la guerra o, quizás, haber asegurado su victoria. Una batalla así fue la Lucha de Sudbury durante la Guerra del Rey Felipe. El hecho de que se luchó en una época en la que no había fotografías o ilustraciones de revistas, informes de periódicos o cobertura de los medios de comunicación, escritores o poetas de mentalidad histórica, no disminuye en mi opinión su importancia para el gran drama estadounidense.

Sin lugar a dudas, la Lucha de Sudbury, aunque fue una pérdida aplastante para los colonos, sirvió para encender las luces proverbiales de la colonia. Hizo que los colonos se dieran cuenta de su terrible posición, los hizo conscientes de su dependencia de los indios que oraban, les dio una tropa de mártires para unirse y motivó a los colonos a dejar de lado el interés propio y llevar a cabo una guerra adecuada.

La Lucha de Sudbury fue ciertamente sobre Sudbury, pero con la misma certeza también fue sobre Marlborough. En abril de 1675, las hostilidades comenzaron con la demolición de Marlborough y en el fatídico día de esa batalla, muy probablemente se libró una escaramuza importante en suelo de Marlborough y toda la guarnición de soldados de Marlborough estaba destinada a ser hecha pedazos en el enfrentamiento final. Así es como sucedió todo.

Mary Rowlandsand, esposa del ministro de Lancaster, fue capturada por los Nipmucs el 10 de febrero de 1676 y permaneció con ellos durante once semanas. Aprendemos de su "historia de cautiverio" que los indios llevaron a cabo un ritual complicado antes de partir hacia Marlborough y Sudbury desde el monte Wachusett. Los espíritus les aseguraron una gran victoria. Los indios necesitaban urgentemente alimentos, provisiones, armas y municiones. Fueron dirigidos por Muttawmp, sachem de Menemeset. El rey Felipe (Metacom) pudo haber estado allí, pero ciertamente no estaba en un papel de liderazgo. Se estimó que había unos quinientos guerreros, pero Daniel Gookin dice que las mujeres también pueden haber participado para dar la impresión de un mayor número.

El 18 y 19 de abril, una gran banda de indios llegó a Marlborough y arrasó con lo que quedaba. Esta destrucción fue mucho mayor que la del 26 de marzo. Todos los edificios de la ciudad, excepto una de las cuatro guarniciones, fueron destruidos. También se mataba cualquier ganado errante. Según Gookin, había cuarenta y siete granjas en Marlborough al comienzo de la guerra. Aproximadamente dos tercios de ellos fueron destruidos en el ataque de abril. Los de las guarniciones habían aprendido por experiencia a no enfrentarse nunca a los indios durante estas incursiones, ya que siempre había muchos más indios esperando en emboscada de los que se podía ver. Los indios sólo atacaron cuando tenían una clara ventaja numérica y habían aprendido de la experiencia a evitar atacar directamente una guarnición, si se podía evitar. Marlborough no era el objetivo principal.

Los respondedores ingleses y aliados incluían a los residentes de Sudbury (unos ochenta), un pequeño contingente de Concord (doce), el capitán Wadsworth y su tropa de Marlborough (cincuenta y setenta), y el capitán Brocklebank y su pequeña tropa, también de Marlborough con Wadsworth ( no más de diez). Otros participantes incluyeron al Capitán Cowell, que vino de Brookfield a Marlborough con una "tropa de caballos" (dieciocho), la milicia de Watertown (unos cuarenta) y el Capitán Prentice de Charlestown con una "capa de soldados a caballo". El capitán Hunting vino de Charlestown y llegó tarde con una tropa de indios rezando. La presencia total inglesa no superaba los doscientos cincuenta hombres, pero sus fuerzas estaban muy fragmentadas y muchos de ellos no vieron acción. Wadsworth y Brocklebank se enfrentaron a la mayor parte de la fuerza india.

El 18 y 19 de abril, Marlborough fue atacado y quemado. El 20 de abril, el capitán Wadsworth llegó de Milton con unos setenta hombres para finalmente reemplazar la pequeña guarnición que quedaba con Brocklebank. El 21 de abril, temprano en la mañana, los indios al este del río Sudbury atacaron edificios hasta la actual Weston. Las guarniciones de la zona no respondieron por temor a una emboscada.

Aproximadamente a las seis de la mañana, los indios atacaron la guarnición relativamente aislada del diácono Haynes en lo que ahora es Water Row en Sudbury, justo al oeste del río Sudbury.

Hasta alrededor de la 1:00 pm los indios sostuvieron el ataque e intentaron quemar la guarnición, pero sin éxito. En ese momento, Sudbury se encontraba principalmente en la actual Wayland. Poca gente del pueblo vivía al oeste del río. Los indios controlaban el puente sobre el río impidiendo que respondieran las milicias de Sudbury y Watertown. El sitio de Haynes Garrison continúa manteniéndose en Water Row, a poca distancia de Old Sudbury Rd. Vale la pena una breve visita.


Guerra del rey Felipe y rsquos: 1675

Incursión en Swansea: Una banda de Pokanoket atacó varias granjas aisladas en el pequeño asentamiento de la colonia de Plymouth en Swansea el 20 de junio de 1675. Asediaron la ciudad, luego la destruyeron cinco días después y mataron a varias personas más.

El 27 de junio de 1675, se produjo un eclipse total de luna en el área de Nueva Inglaterra. Varias tribus de Nueva Inglaterra lo vieron como un buen augurio para atacar a los colonos.

Los funcionarios de las colonias de Plymouth y Massachusetts Bay respondieron rápidamente a los ataques en Swansea el 28 de junio, enviaron una expedición militar punitiva que destruyó la ciudad de Wampanoag en Mount Hope.

Asedio de Brookfield: La batalla consistió en una emboscada inicial el 2 de agosto de 1675 por parte de los Nipmucs contra el grupo desprevenido de Wheeler & rsquos. Después de la emboscada hubo un ataque a Brookfield, Massachusetts, y el consiguiente asedio de los restos de la fuerza colonial. Las fuerzas de Nipmuc retuvieron a los colonos durante dos días hasta que llegaron refuerzos y los expulsaron.

Batalla de Bloody Brook: Una batalla entre la milicia de la Colonia de la Bahía de Massachusetts y una banda de indios Nipmuc donde la milicia fue emboscada por los indios mientras escoltaba un tren de carros que transportaban la cosecha.

Springfield: El siguiente objetivo fue Springfield, Massachusetts, que era el asentamiento más grande en el río Connecticut. Los indios quemaron la mayoría de los edificios de Springfield & rsquos hasta los cimientos e hicieron que los colonos se refugiaran en la casa de Miles Morgan. Uno de los sirvientes indios escapó entre los indios y alertó a la milicia de la bahía de Massachusetts. La milicia logró ahuyentar a los indios.

La gran lucha del pantano: El gobernador de la colonia de Plymouth, Josiah Winslow, dirigió una fuerza combinada de milicias coloniales contra la tribu Narragansett. Debido al frío invierno, el Narragansett se había retirado a un fuerte en el pantano helado. Los mil milicianos y sus aliados indios atacaron el fuerte.

Se cree que la milicia mató a unos 600 Narragansetts. Quemaron el fuerte, ocupando más de 5 acres y destruyeron la mayoría de las tiendas de invierno de las tribus y rsquos.

Ataque indio Mohawk: Metacomet estableció un campamento de invierno en Nueva York. Su razón para mudarse a Nueva York se ha atribuido al deseo de conseguir ayuda de Mohawk en el conflicto. El Mohawk lanzó un asalto sorpresa contra una banda de 500 guerreros bajo el mando de Metacomet & rsquos en febrero siguiente.

El ataque resultó en la muerte de entre 70 y hasta 460 de los Wampanoag. Con sus fuerzas paralizadas, Metacomet se retiró a Nueva Inglaterra, perseguido por las fuerzas Mohawk que atacaron los asentamientos algonquianos y tendieron una emboscada a sus partidas de suministro.


La batalla

Las fuerzas nativas se infiltraron en Sudbury durante la noche y atacaron al amanecer, quemando casas y graneros, y matando a & # 8220 a varias personas & # 8221, según el historiador puritano William Hubbard. Muchos residentes ingleses de Sudbury (la mayoría de los cuales vivían en la orilla este del río Sudbury, en la actual Wayland) abandonaron sus hogares y buscaron refugio en las casas fortificadas de la guarnición de la ciudad. Los nativos sitiaron la casa de la guarnición de Haynes en Water Row Road durante toda la mañana, pero se enfrentaron a una fuerte defensa de los civiles ingleses que estaban dentro. En un momento, los nativos hicieron rodar un carro en llamas lleno de lino cuesta abajo hacia la guarnición, solo para que el artilugio golpeara una roca y se derramara antes de causar algún daño. La guarnición de Haynes se mantuvo durante toda la batalla, aunque los autores George Ellis y John Morris han especulado que el asedio fue una finta destinada a atraer refuerzos ingleses al área.

& # 8220 Al escuchar la alarma & # 8221, alrededor de una docena de hombres de Concord marcharon a la defensa de Sudbury. Fueron emboscados y masacrados a la vista de los defensores de la guarnición de Haynes. Solo uno de los hombres de Concord escapó con vida, y los muertos fueron enterrados en una fosa común al este del Puente de la Ciudad Vieja en Wayland.

Enrojecidos por la victoria, las fuerzas nativas cruzaron el río y se dispusieron a saquear el asentamiento central de Sudbury. Poco antes del mediodía, los milicianos ingleses de Watertown bajo el mando del capitán Hugh Mason llegaron y repelieron con éxito al grupo de asalto.

Cuando Mason retomó el control de la ciudad, el capitán Wadsworth se acercó desde el oeste con unos setenta hombres, reforzados por el capitán Samuel Brocklebank y la guarnición n. ° 8217 en Marlborough. Los hombres de Wadsworth y # 8217 habían descansado solo brevemente en Marlborough antes de su marcha de regreso al este para defender Sudbury, estaban hambrientos, exhaustos y completamente ignorantes de la posición de su enemigo. A una milla de la ciudad, los hombres de Wadsworth vieron a un centenar de nativos armados lanzándose hacia el bosque. Creyendo que & # 8220 estos podrían tratar fácilmente & # 8221, la milicia partió en su persecución.

Los nativos llevaron a la milicia al terreno bajo entre Goodman & # 8217s Hill y Green Hill en la actual Sudbury, donde lanzaron una emboscada, rodeando a la pequeña fuerza inglesa. Wadsworth se abrió camino hasta la cima de Green Hill, ordenó a sus hombres que formaran un cuadrado y rechazó múltiples cargas nativas. La lucha duró toda la tarde. La milicia de Watertown y dos compañías de caballería inglesa intentaron repetidamente rescatar a Wadsworth, pero finalmente no lograron romper el envoltorio nativo y se vieron obligados a retirarse.

Luego, los guerreros nativos prendieron fuego a la maleza seca de la colina, ahogando con humo a la asediada compañía de Wadsworth. Presa del pánico, los ingleses rompieron y echaron a correr. La mitad de los milicianos murieron en la derrota, incluidos Wadsworth y Brocklebank. Los supervivientes huyeron al sur hacia la casa de la guarnición de Goodenow en Boston Post Road, donde la compañía de Mason y la caballería se estaban reagrupando. Trece o catorce milicianos también se refugiaron en el molino fortificado de Noyes hasta que finalmente fueron rescatados.

Según Increase Mather, los nativos tomaron & # 8220 cinco o seis de los ingleses vivos & # 8221 y & # 8220 los desnudaron, y les hicieron correr el guante, azotándolos de una manera cruel y sangrienta, y luego arrojaron cenizas calientes sobre ellos. cortó la carne de sus piernas y prendió fuego en sus heridas, deleitándose al ver los miserables tormentos de criaturas miserables. & # 8221 Hubbard también afirma que los cautivos ingleses fueron torturados, pero Mary Rowlandson, una cautiva del sachem Weetamoo que estaba presente en el El campamento nativo durante la batalla, no lo menciona en sus memorias.


Lectura suplementaria (recursos en línea / fuera de línea)

  1. La guerra del rey Felipe, por George M. Bodge (Leominster, MA: 1896)
  2. Tracy, Cyrus M. y Henry Wheatland. Historia estándar del condado de Essex, Massachusetts, Que abarca una historia del condado desde su primer asentamiento hasta la actualidad, con una historia y descripción de sus pueblos y ciudades. El condado más histórico de América. Boston: C.F. Jewett & amp, 1878. Imprimir. Copia digital disponible en: http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/

Guerras del siglo XIX

En la Batalla de Tippecanoe en 1811, Shawnee Chief Tecumseh formó una coalición para frenar el flujo de colonos hacia Illinois e Indiana. El gobernador territorial William Henry Harrison dirigió una fuerza de soldados y milicias para destruir la aldea de Shawnee & # x2019s, pero acordó un alto el fuego temporal. Tecumseh & # x2019s hermano, & # x201C El Profeta, & # x201D ignoró el alto el fuego y atacó. Harrison prevaleció, sin embargo, y los Shawnee se retiraron al norte.

La Guerra de 1812 se libró entre Gran Bretaña y Estados Unidos y sus respectivos aliados indios. La derrota de Tecumseh & # x2019 en la batalla de Tippecanoe lo llevó a apoyar a los británicos. En la Batalla del Támesis (una de las muchas batallas de la Guerra de 1812) a lo largo del río Támesis en Ontario, las tropas británicas y la coalición de Tecumseh & # x2019 fueron superadas en número y fácilmente derrotadas nuevamente. Tecumseh murió en la batalla, lo que llevó a muchos indios a abandonar la causa británica.

En 1814, los creeks pro-estadounidenses (Lower Creeks) y los creeks que estaban resentidos con los estadounidenses (Upper Creeks) estaban librando una guerra civil. En la batalla de Horseshoe Bend en Alabama el 27 de marzo, la milicia estadounidense luchó junto a Lower Creeks para derrotar a Upper Creeks. La batalla terminó con la firma del Tratado de Fort Jackson y los Creeks cedieron casi dos millones de acres de tierra.


Las cosas han cambiado

El 21 de abril de 1676, entre 500 y 1500 guerreros indios hicieron su acercamiento más cercano a Boston durante lo que se conoció como el Lucha de Sudbury. Sucedió durante Guerra de Reyes Felipe de 1675-6, el conflicto colono-indio más sangriento en la historia de Estados Unidos, medido por el porcentaje de la población masculina muerta o herida (THC escribió sobre el origen, el curso y la memoria de la guerra en el post Arroyo sangriento). El rey Felipe (nombre nativo Metcomet), vivía cerca de la frontera de Rhode Island / Massachusetts y un incidente que lo involucró desencadenó la guerra.

(Mapa de la guerra del rey Felipe por George Ellis y John Morris (1906) a través de la U de Chicago.)

A finales del invierno de 1675-6, los ataques de los indios habían obligado al abandono de las ciudades del centro de Massachusetts. Los colonos de las ciudades del valle del río Connecticut estaban apiñados en varias ciudades para protegerse y los pequeños asentamientos en Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire y Maine habían sido atacados.

En marzo, una reunión de guerreros indios en Mt Wachuston (ver mapa arriba) resultó en la decisión de atacar asentamientos al este en dirección a Boston, siendo Sudbury el objetivo inmediato (según se informa después de rechazar un ataque a Concord). Marlboro, Groton y Lancaster fueron rápidamente invadidos y quemados y, en la noche del 20 de abril, los guerreros estaban en las afueras de Sudbury.

En ese momento, los límites de Sudbury eran diferentes de lo que son hoy, y también abarcaban el Wayland actual y Maynard al noroeste. La mayor parte de la población de la ciudad estaba ubicada en el lado este del río Sudbury, en lo que ahora es Wayland. El este de Massachusetts ha estado densamente poblado durante más de dos siglos, pero en la última parte del siglo XVII estaba en la frontera. Más allá de la nueva ciudad de Marlboro, inmediatamente al oeste de Sudbury, solo había asentamientos dispersos en medio de los bosques hasta llegar a las ciudades del valle de Connecticut.

Todas las ciudades fronterizas como Sudbury y Marlboro dependían de la milicia local para protegerse contra las incursiones de los indios desde el desierto occidental y también de las casas de "guarnición", granjas seleccionadas fortalecidas para su protección, bien provistas para resistir los asedios y con armas y pólvora a disposición de las familias. podría huir en tiempos de angustia. Había seis casas de guarnición en Sudbury.

El 21 de abril, había unos 200 defensores del asentamiento de Sudbury. Alrededor de 80 milicianos locales junto con varias columnas de milicianos de otras ciudades estaban en el área ese día.

La acción se inició con un ataque de los indios en las primeras horas de la mañana contra las casas de la guarnición, así como con un cruce del río Sudbury y la quema de algunas viviendas en la parte oriental de la ciudad. El objetivo principal era la casa Haynes Garrison, justo al oeste del río, donde el asedio comenzó a las 6 am.


(captura de pantalla de slideshare una excelente presentación sobre la guerra del rey Felipe en Marlboro, que vale la pena ver, se puede encontrar aquí)

Estacionada en Marlboro había una compañía de alrededor de 70 bajo el mando de Capitán Samuel Wadsworth. Si bien la mayor parte del asentamiento ya había sido incendiado, la compañía de Wadsworth estaba estacionada en una de las casas de la guarnición a la que había marchado a través de Sudbury sin ser consciente de la fuerza de los indios. Al contratar el despido, Wadsworth tomó a unos 50 de sus hombres y comenzó a marchar hacia Sudbury. En otro camino entre Sudbury y Marlboro, una compañía de 18 hombres montados al mando del capitán Edward Cowell fue emboscada, y cuatro de sus hombres murieron antes de que los indios se retiraran y él se dirigiera cautelosamente hacia Sudbury.

Mientras tanto, otra compañía de unos 40 de Watertown al mando del capitán Hugh Mason se reunió y comenzó a marchar hacia el oeste para relevo de Sudbury al recibir la alarma. Mientras avanzaban hacia Sudbury, encontraron a los indios en su frente retirándose.

El asedio a la casa de Haynes Garrison continuó hasta las primeras horas de la tarde, con tiroteos constantes e intentos infructuosos de los indios de incendiar la casa. En un momento, los que estaban en la casa vieron con horror cómo 12 hombres de Concord, que se movían hacia el sur a lo largo del río para ayudar a los de Sudbury, eran emboscados, y solo uno escapaba. Temprano en la tarde vio el final del asedio de la casa de la guarnición cuando los indios se retiraron.

Fue solo más tarde en el día que las razones de la retirada de los indios se hicieron evidentes. La compañía de Wadsworth había caído en otra emboscada y su fuerza era lo suficientemente grande como para que todos los indios de la zona fueran necesarios para aniquilarla. Tomando una posición en Green Hill cerca de la frontera de Sudbury / Marlboro, los hombres de Wadsworth libraron una lucha desesperada esa tarde.

Samuel Wadsworth ya era un experimentado capitán de combate en la guerra. Provenía de una familia distinguida y llegó a Boston cuando tenía dos años, con su padre Christopher a bordo de The Lion en 1632. El hermano mayor de Christopher, William Wadsworth, llegó en el mismo barco y se convirtió en uno de los fundadores de Hartford, Connecticut. El joven Samuel creció en Duxbury, cerca de Plymouth, antes de mudarse a Milton, al suroeste de Boston en 1656. Allí, él y su esposa Abagail criaron ocho hijos (cinco sobrevivieron hasta la edad adulta) en su granja de 300 acres. Uno de sus hijos, Benjamin, de seis años en 1676, se convirtió en presidente de Harvard College de 1725 a 1737. Wadsworth House en Harvard, construida para Benjamin en 1726, todavía existe como el segundo edificio más antiguo de la Universidad y sirvió como El primer cuartel general de George Washington cuando llegó para tomar el mando del Ejército Continental en julio de 1776.

A pesar de su experiencia, Wadsworth no sobrevivió a la batalla, ni tampoco 28 de sus soldados. Los supervivientes pudieron escapar del cerco y buscar refugio en las casas de la guarnición. Poco se sabe de los detalles de la lucha en Green Hill. Este relato es del libro de 1906 de Ellis y Morris sobre la guerra:

(Monumento a Wadsworth en Green Hill de la página de la U de Chicago en el libro de Ellis & amp Morris)

Esa noche, unas 125 personas, familias de Sudbury y la milicia sobreviviente, se apiñaron en las casas de la guarnición en el lado oeste del río, anticipando un nuevo ataque indio al día siguiente. Pero con el amanecer no pasó nada. Los indios se habían retirado hacia el oeste.

La Lucha de Sudbury fue una victoria táctica para los guerreros del rey Felipe. Habían realizado con éxito tres emboscadas, a las órdenes de Cowell y Wadsworth, así como a los hombres de Concord, y destruyeron gran parte de Sudbury al oeste del río. Cincuenta y dos milicianos murieron, mientras que las pérdidas indias pueden haber sido de cuatro a seis. Se desconoce por qué ocurrió la retirada, pero el rey Felipe nunca reanudó la ofensiva, la iniciativa se trasladó rápidamente a los colonos y la guerra terminó a finales de año.

THC siempre ha estado interesado en los eventos de Sudbury Fight. De 1973 a 1975 vivió en Sudbury y los cimientos de la casa Haynes Garrison todavía eran visibles a lo largo de Water Row, adyacente al río. La Casa de la Guarnición de Haynes se mantuvo hasta 1876.Este grabado es de una historia de Sudbury (encontrado a través de A lo largo de la Carretera del Rey). Él y la Sra. THC volvieron a visitar el sitio a principios de este año y tomaron estas fotos:


Ipswich, la masacre de Brookfield y la guerra del rey Felipe & # 8217s

En mayo de 1660, un grupo de colonos se trasladó de Ipswich a la ciudad india de Quaboag en el oeste de Massachusetts, a la que rebautizaron como Brookfield. Indian attacks known as “King Philip’s War” resulted in the destruction of Brookfield and the deaths of a dozen settlers on August 2, 1675. English soldiers accompanied by Mohegan allies were eventually able to break the siege at Brookfield, with casualties on both sides. Hatfield, Deerfield and Northfield were attacked in September, and Springfield was burned on October 5th.

The leader of the Indian attacks was Metacomet (aka Metacom) leader of the Pokanoket tribe, known by the English as King Philip, who led a bloody uprising of Wampanoag, Nipmuck, Pocumtuck and Narragansett tribes that lasted over a year and destroying twelve frontier towns, the bloodiest war, per capita, in North American history.

In January of 1675, John Sassamon, a Christian Native-American, told Plymouth’s governor, Josiah Winslow, that King Philip was planning an attack against the colonists. Later that month Sassamon was found dead and three Wampanoags were arrested, tried and executed them at Plymouth plantation on June 8. On June 20, Pokanoket warriors looted and set fire to homes in Swansea, then attacked residents returning from church. Officials from Plymouth and Boston responded on June 28 with a military expedition that destroyed the Wampanoag town at Mount Hope (modern Bristol, Rhode Island). The destruction of their village enraged the Narragansett and brought them into into the conflict. Philip escaped but the women and children of the village were sold into slavery by the English.

Ipswich settlers of Brookfield

William Prichard arrived in the colony in 1630 and settled in Ipswich in 1649. In the summer of 1660. By 1675 he was a selectman of Brookfield and serving as Sergeant in the military. On August 2, 1675, Sergeant Prichard, Corporal Coy, and Sergeant Ayres, were slain in an ambush at Braintree. William Pritchard’s son was outside the garrison at Brookfield when the attack began and was slain by the Indians. They cut off his head, tossed it about like a ball in sight of the settlers, and then set on a pole against his dead father’s house.

John Ayres Sr. was a prominent Ipswich resident who promoted the settlement in Quaboag. He also was killed in the ambush by the Indians in New Braintree the same day as the Brookfield massacre. His wife Susannah Ayres survived the attack at Brookfield and moved back to Ipswich with her six sons and one daughter.

Daniel Hovey and his wife Abigail joined the new town in 1668 accompanied by their five younger children, Thomas aged 20, James 18, Joseph 15, Abigail 13, and Nathaniel 11. Their older children, Daniel Jr. and John remained in Ipswich. Daniel Hovey moved again to Hadley and returned to Ipswich after the massacre.

Metacomet’s forces attacked the settlement at Brookfield and tried to set it on fire.

In the early moments of that siege, Daniel’s son James was overtaken and killed by the Indians somewhere near his house. His wife Priscilla and their children took refuge in a tavern surrounded by hundreds of hostile Nipmucs, who tried unsuccessfully to burn it. After three days Major Simon Willard arrived with 46 troops, and they chased off the attackers. James Hovey was buried with the eleven other victims, and the traumatized survivors returned to Ipswich or dispersed to other better-protected communities along the Massachusetts frontier.

After the attack on Brookfield, Priscilla took her three children to join James’ brother Daniel Hovey in Hadley. She left her eldest son also named Daniel in Hadley to be raised and educated by James’ other brother Thomas. The widow returned to Ipswich with her daughter Priscilla and the infant, James Jr. She filed an inventory of the estate in March 16, 1676 and received a small stipend as a war widow from the General Court of Ipswich. James’ death was officially listed as a military casualty.

John Warner and his father William Warner were among the first settlers in the Ipswich Colony, arriving in 1635. The father died in Ipswich in 1648. John Warner married Priscilla, daughter of Mark Symonds of Ipswich where they continued to live for about twenty years. In 1670, he sold to John Woodam his property in Ipswich, consisting of his dwelling house, barn, orchard, and 7 acres of upland “which formerly was part of my father Warner’s meadow in Ipswich.” and he and Priscilla moved to Brookfield. He was one of three men there who arranged the transfer of land with the Indians, built the first house in the new town and is referred to as the “Father of Brookfield”. John and Priscilla survived the attack and retreated with their younger children to Hadley, MA to join their oldest son Mark Warner. Priscilla died in 1688 and John died in 1692.

King Philip’s War

The following excerpts are from Ipswich in the Massachusetts Bay Colony by Thomas Franklin Waters (with additional information added):

Since the year 1653, there had been no fear of Indian assaults. The settlers went to work in the fields, or assembled for public worship, and journeys were made over the lonely roads through the forests without suspicion of danger. But, at last, there were signs of an approaching rupture in the peaceful relations between the English and the Indians.

A chief of commanding influence, Metacun, the son of Massasoit, known commonly by his English name, Philip, dwelt at Mount Hope, near the present town of Bristol, Rhode Island. He had sold his tribal lands so extensively, that his people began to feel the pressure of civilization. The settlers had dealt unfairly in many instances in their traffic with the natives. They had deprived them of their arms, on pretence of treachery, and had occupied their lands without purchase.

Brooding over his wrongs, Philip organized a plot for the extermination of his dangerous neighbors. It was discovered by a Christian Indian, who reported it to the authorities of Plymouth Colony. Philip condemned the informer to death, and he was slain in January, 1674. Three Indians were brought to trial for the crime and sentenced to death. Two of them were executed in June, 1675, and Philip began at once to plan for his revenge.

On the 24th of June, 1675, the first blow was struck. The town of Swansea in the Plymouth colony was attacked and eight or nine of the English were slain. A foot company under Captain Daniel Henchman and Captain Thomas Prentice with a troop of horse were dispatched from Boston toward Mount Hope on the 26th. The state of affairs was critical and with true Puritan reverence, the 29th of June was set apart as a day of humiliation and prayer. The troops met the enemy near Swansea and some lives were lost on both sides.

It soon became evident that a general Indian uprising was imminent. On the 14th of July, Mendon, about 36 miles from Boston and within the bounds of the Massachusetts Colony, was assailed and four or five of the settlers were killed.

In May 1660, a group of colonists moved from Ipswich to the Indian town Quaboag in Western Massachusetts, which they renamed Brookfield. Indian attacks resulted in the destruction of Brookfield and the deaths of a dozen settlers on August 2, 1675. The full horrors of an Indian war were revealed in the bloody affair at Brookfield. Captain Edward Hutchinson, accompanied by his troopers, and some of the men of Brookfield went to the place agreed on with the Indians for a conference, near the town of Brookfield, and not meeting them there, pushed on to find them. In a narrow defile, shut in by a rocky hill on one side and a swamp on the other, they were suddenly fired on, and in the short, sharp fight that followed eight were slain.

Retreating to the town, they made their stand in the garrison house. The Indians assailed them hotly with loud yells. One young man, the son of William Pritchard, who had been slain in the morning, was killed while venturing away from the garrison. They cut off his head, tossed it about in plain sight of the beleaguered settlers, and then set it on a pole against the door of his father’s house. The Indians endeavored repeatedly to burn the garrison house, and, after several unsuccessful attempts, were just completing a long cart filled with combustibles, and provided with poles, with which they could push it against the house. A providential shower wet the kindling wood so thoroughly that it would not burn readily.

The news of this affair must have caused many a panic in Ipswich. The plantation six miles square, near Quabaug Ponds, had been granted by the General Court in 1660 to some persons of Ipswich, if twenty families and an approved minister be there in three years. In 1667, on the 15th of May, the Court voted that the time be extended for a year from the next midsummer, as only six or seven families had settled there. John Warner and William Pritchard removed from Ipswich to the new settlement in the year it was granted, and Captain John Ayres was a resident there in 1672. Sergeant Prichard, Corporal Coy, and Sergeant Ayres, were slain in an ambush at Braintree. The tale of the tragic death of Ayres and the Pritchards, and the sufferings of their families in the garrison house made the war vivid, real and terrible.

The Essex regiment was commanded by Major Denison. The Ipswich company had for its officers, Denison as Captain, Samuel Appleton as Lieutenant and Thomas Burnham as Ensign. The first Essex troop, recruited in Salem and vicinity, and the second Essex troop, which was composed of Ipswich and Newbury men, were also attached to this regiment. Upon the breaking out of the war, Denison had been appointed commander-in-chief of the Massachusetts troops. In the latter part of July a levy of troops had been made in Essex County and immediately after the disaster at Brookfield, Captain Lathrop of Salem was sent with a company from Salem and the neighboring towns, including some from Ipswich. Captain Beers also marched from Watertown with his command. The troops gathered at Brookfield and Hadley, but no body of Indians was discovered. Many towns were threatened and the soldiers were kept on the move.

With the beginning of September, the war was pressed most vigorously along the Connecticut River. On the first of that month, Deerfield was burned and one man killed. Two or three days later, the Indians attacked Squakeag, now Northfield, where they killed nine or ten of the people. The next day Captain Beers, with thirty-six men, marched to relieve the garrison at Squakeag, not hearing of the disaster of the day before, and was ambushed by a large number of Indians. He made a brave defence, but after a valiant fight, he and about twenty of his men were slain.

Rev. William Hubbard, in his History of the Indian Wars, remarks, in this connection:

“Here the barbarous villains showed their insolent Rage and Cruelty, more than ever before, cutting off the Heads of some of the Slain, and fixing them upon Poles near the Highway and not only so, but one was found with a Chain hooked into his under Jaw, and so hung up on the Bow of a Tree (’tis feared he was hung up alive) by which Means they thought to daunt and discourage any that might come to their Relief, and also to terrify those that should be Spectators with the Beholding so sad an object insomuch that Major Treat with his Company, going up two days after, to fetch of the Residue of the Garrison, were solemnly affected with that doleful Sight, which made them make the more Haste to bring down the Garrison, not waiting for any Opportunity to take Revenge upon the Enemy, having but a hundred with him, too few for such a purpose. Captain Appleton going up after him, met him coming down, and would willingly have persuaded them to have turned back, to see if they could have made any Spoil upon the Enemy but the greatest Part advised to the Contrary, so that they were all forced to return with what they could carry away leaving the Rest for a Booty to the Enemy, who shall ere long pay a sad Reckoning for their Robberies and Cruelties, in the Time appointed.”

Samuel Appleton

Captain Samuel Appleton had taken the field with his company about the first of September, and he and his Ipswich soldiers had a gruesome beginning of their warfare, marching over the road lined with the dismembered bodies of their fellow soldiers, and the smoking ruins of the farms. The troops were distributed at garrisons at Northampton, Hatfield, Deerfield and Hadley. Captain Appleton was stationed at Deerfield and arrived there about the tenth of September. On the 17th of August, Gen. Denison sent orders from Boston to Major Richard Waldron to proceed to Pennicook (Concord), “supposed to be the rendezvous of ye enemy where you may expect to meet Capt. Mosely, who is ordered thither.” He instructed him to take a surgeon with him, and informed him that the main body of the soldiers was at Hadley.

The Battle of Bloody Brook was fought on September 18, 1675 between English colonial militia from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and a band of Indians led by the Nipmuc sachem Muttawmp. The Indians ambushed colonists escorting a train of wagons carrying the harvest from Deerfield to Hadley during King Philip’s War. They killed at least 40 militia men and 17 teamsters out of a company that included 79 militia. Image from “Pioneers in the settlement of America” by William A. Crafts

Bloody Brook

On Sunday the 12th of September, the soldiers and settlers at Deerfield gathered for worship in the stockade. Returning, the north garrison was ambushed with the loss of one man captured. Appleton rallied his men and attacked them and drove them off, but the north fort had been plundered and set on fire, and much of the settlers’ stock stolen. As he had not force enough to guard the forts and engage in offensive operations, the Indians still hung round insultingly and burned two more houses. A storm prevented action that night, but the next night a party of volunteers, with a few from Hadley, and some of Lathrop’s men came up to the relief of the town.

On the 14th, the united forces under Appleton marched to Pine Hill. Spies had doubtless reported the arrival of reinforcements, and the Indians had all fled. It was decided that Deerfield should be abandoned, and as there was a large amount of corn already threshed, it was loaded on carts and Captain Lathrop was detailed to guard the teams on their way to Hadley. No Indians were known to be in the neighborhood. The Ipswich Historian, Rev. Hubbard wrote, “Upon September 18, “that most fatal Day, the Saddest that ever befell New England, as the Company were marching along with the Carts never apprehending Danger so near, were suddenly set upon, and almost all cut off (not above seven or eight escaping).”

The number of the slain, including Captain Lathrop, as reported by Rev. John Russell of Hadley in a letter written shortly afterward, was seventy-one. Only a few escaped. Among the dead, were several Ipswich men, Thomas Hobbs, Caleb Kimball, John Littlehale, Thomas Manning, Thomas Mentor, and Jacob Wainwright. They were all buried in a single grave near the place where they fell. Rev. Mr. Hubbard narrates:

“As Captain Mosely came upon the Indians in the Morning, he found them stripping the Slain, amongst whom was one Robert Dutch of Ipswich, having been sorely wounded by a Bullet that grazed to his Skull, and then mauled by the Indian Hatchets, was left for dead by the savages, and stript by them of all but his skin yet when Captain Mosely came near, he almost miraculously, as one raised from the Dead, came towards the English, to their no small Amazement, by whom being received and clothed, he was carried off to the next Garrison, and is living and in perfect Health at this Day.”

Battle at Hadley

Captain Appleton and his Ipswich company were stationed at Hadley, and his value as a military leader was becoming more and more evident to the Council of the Col ony. Instructions were sent to Captain Wayte: “It is ordered that there be a commission issued forth to Capt. Samuel Appleton to command a foot Company of 100 men In the service of ye country. On the 5th of October, Captain Mosely wrote from Hadley, “Major Pinchon is gone with Capt. Appleton with a company of above 190 soldiers. They hurried to Springfield but found the town in flames, and the Indians already fled. Major Pynchon’s grist mills, Rev. Mr. Glover’s Parsonage with his valuable library, and nearly all the buildings were destroyed.” Rev. John Russell wrote a letter which described the disaster, and lamented that Hadley would be the next to drink the bitter cup.

Captain Samuel Appleton was Commander in chief at the headquarters at Hadley. The position to which he was called was full of difficulty. The Indians had ravaged the country so sorely and had inflicted such terrible losses upon the forces sent against them, that a general feeling of discouragement prevailed. On the 19th of October, an attack was made upon Hatfield, but Appleton had foreseen the danger and provided for it. Mr. Hubbard gives a vivid narrative of the fight:

“According to the good Providence of Almighty God, Major Treat was newly returned to Northampton, Captain Mosely and Captain Poole were then garrisoning the said Hatfield, and Captain Appleton quartering at Hadley, when on the sudden seven or eight hundred of the Enemy came upon the Town in all Quarters, having first killed or taken two or three Scouts belonging to the Town, and seven more belonging to Captain Mosely his company. But they were so well entertained on all hands where they attempted to break in upon the Town, that they found it too hot for them, by the Resolution of the English instantly beaten off, without doing much harm. Captain Appleton’s Sergeant was mortally wounded just by his side, another bullet passing through his own hair, by that whisper telling him that Death was very near but did no other harm.”

Major Appleton led a two-hour attack against Metacom’s fighters in Springfield which resulted in the first setback by the Indians. This was the first decisive defeat inflicted upon the Indians. Col. Appleton began the distribution of the Massachusetts troops among the exposed towns. Twenty-nine soldiers under Captain Aaron Cooke were stationed at Westfield. Twenty-nine were sent to Springfield under command of Major Pynchon, Lieut. Clarke and twenty-six men. 197 were left at Northampton, thirty at Hadley commanded by Captain Jonathan Poole, and thirty-six at Hatfield.

Return to Ipswich

Having made this provision for the defense of the frontier towns, Major Appleton marched home, probably about November 24th. A feeling of comfortable security filled the town, when the Major and his soldiers returned. A few weeks before, the Indians had appeared at Salisbury, and General Denison marched thither with his troops. The outposts at Topsfield and Andover were greatly alarmed at seeing Indians.

“It is hardly imaginable,” Denison wrote from Ipswich on the 28th of October, “the panic and fear that is upon our upland plantations, and scattered places, respecting their habitations.” The General Court on October 13th had ordered a guard of two men, appointed by General Denison or the chief commander of the town of Ipswich, to keep watch at Deputy Governor Symonds’s Argilla farm, as it was “so remote from neighbours, and he so much necessitated to be on the country’s service.”

No doubt the distracted people slept more soundly, and gathered hope and strength. But the interval of calm was short. Scarcely had Appleton and his men returned from their campaign, when they were summoned into the field for a united assault upon the Narragansett Indians in their stronghold.

The Great Swamp Fight

Major Appleton marched away on the eighth of December as the whole Massachusetts force mustered on Dedham Plain on the ninth. There were five companies, commanded by Captains Mosely, Gardner, Davenport, Oliver and Johnson, beside the company of which Major Appleton was Captain. Major Appleton led his force on that winter’s day, December 9th, a long march of twenty-seven miles to “Woodcoks” now Attleboro, and another day brought them to Seekonk. On December 14th, as his scouts had brought in some Indians, he led his troops, foot and horse, on a detour into the Indian country, and burned a hundred and fifty wigwams, killed seven of the enemy and brought in eight prisoners. As the army advanced, several of the soldiers, straggling from their companies, were slain by roving bands of Indians.

By the 18th of December, the Connecticut and Plymouth soldiers had joined the Massachusetts regiment, and as provisions were scarce and the cold was sharp, an advance was made at once. A heavy snowstorm came on. There was no shelter for officers or common soldiers, and after a long and trying march, they lay down in the snow, “finding no other defense all that Night, save the open air, nor other covering than a cold and moist fleece of snow.” At daylight the march was resumed.

Rev. Mr. Hubbard, recording the substance of many conversations with the Major and his men, informs us that “They marched from the break of the next day, December 19th till one of the Clock in the Afternoon, without either Fire to warm them, or Respite to take any Food save what they could chew on their March.” They wallowed through snow, two or three feet deep, with many frostbitten in their hands and feet, fourteen or fifteen miles to the edge of a swamp, where their Indian guides affirmed the Narragansetts had their stronghold. Captain Mosely and Captain Davenport led the vanguard, Captain Gardner and Captain Johnson followed, Major Appleton and Captain Oliver brought up the rear of the Massachusetts force. The Plymouth soldiers with General Winslow marched in the center, and the Connecticut men under Major Treat formed the rear guard of the little army.

Depiction of the colonial assault on the Narragansetts’ fort in the Great Swamp Fight in December 1675

Notwithstanding the hardships of their march, the soldiers rushed impetuously into the swamp, without waiting the word of command, and pursued the Indians, who had shown themselves to the fort, which had been built on an island, and strongly defended with an impassable palisade of logs, stuck upright, and a dense hedge. The Indians held their ground with great determination, but after several hours of sharp fighting, their wigwams were set on fire, and they were put to rout with great slaughter. It was a dearly bought victory. Three of the six Massachusetts Captains, Davenport, Gardner and Johnson, and three Connecticut captains lay dead, and many officers and men were wounded.

The short winter day was spent before the battle was done, and as the Indian fort was deemed an unsafe camp, the desperate alternative remained of marching back to the nearest settlement, full fifteen or sixteen miles, after night had fallen. Bearing their dead, and helping the wounded, the survivors struggled back. The horrors of that night march pass imagination. Many of the wounded perished by the way, and the strongest were completely spent before a safe shelter was reached. Four of Major Appleton’s soldiers were killed, Samuel Taylor of Ipswich, Isaac Ellery of Gloucester, Daniel Rolfe of Newbury and Samuel Tyler of Rowley. Eighteen were wounded, including John Denison, George Timson, and Thomas Dow of Ipswich.

It is believed that up to 150 Indian inhabitants, many of them women, children, and the elderly, were killed or burned alive, while others fled across the swamp and died from exposure. Seventy of the Colonial forces died, and many more wounded. A second body of recruits was sent to Major Appleton a little later. Provisions were scant, and men and horses were sorely pinched with hunger. Many of the horses were killed and eaten and the campaign was long remembered as the Hungry March.

The soldiers arrived home early in February, and Major Appleton seems to have retired from active service. Within a week after their return, the weary soldiers, scarcely restored from the exhausting ordeal of the Hungry March, were again in the field. Alarming reports had come of the disaster at Lancaster, where Nipmucs from Nashaway staged an attack, led by the sachem Monoco. Redfield was soon burned, and on February 25th, Weymouth was partly destroyed. In March, Groton was surprised and burnt, and the inhabitants fled in terror, abandoning the settlement. Wrentham was abandoned in similar fashion. The Indians moved rapidly from point to point small parties appeared suddenly in the most unexpected localities, killing a man or two, and then disappearing, “skulking up and down in swamps and holes, to assault any that occasionally looked never so little into the woods.”

The towns in the Connecticut Valley were panic struck. A new army was immediately ordered, and fresh levies of foot and horse soldiers were ordered by the General Court on the 21st of February. Cornet John Whipple of Ipswich, who had already served with honor in the earlier campaigns, was made Captain of the new troop of horse, and Major General Denison was ordered to Marlborough to dispose the soldiers gathered there under the several captains, and take charge of the campaign. Captain Brocklebank of Rowley was placed in command of the Marlborough garrison.

Attack on Sudbury

Alarming reports were soon brought to Ipswich of the approach of marauding bands. General Denison was at home, and his letter of the 19th of March to Secretary Rawson reveals a time of alarm and nervous apprehension of an attack, in which his presence must have been a source of great comfort to the community. But the hours wore on, no alarm was given, and gradually confidence returned to the distressed town. The fortification was around the meeting-house, and one of the garrison houses was near the River. Every able-bodied man was trained and disciplined. Every family was anxious. Meanwhile the men at the front were eager for release. Spring was at hand and the planting of their fields required their presence.

On April 21st, the neighboring town of Sudbury was surprised. Captain Wadsworth was sent from Boston with fifty soldiers to relieve the Marlborough garrison. They made a hurried march of twenty-five miles, reaching Marlborough at night. Finding that the enemy was at Sudbury ten miles away, without allowing themselves time for rest, they hastened thither, with Captain Brocklebank and some of the garrison, accompanying them. Near Sudbury, they met a small body of Indians, who withdrew at their approach and lured them into the woods. There a great body assailed them. The weary soldiers made a brave defense, but they were hopelessly outnumbered. Captain Wadsworth fell, and Captain Brocklebank, whom Mr. Hubbard characterizes as “a choice spirited Man, much lamented by the Town of Rowley, to which he belonged.” More than thirty soldiers, it is believed, were slain, as they were making their retreat from the hilltop, where they had made a brave stand for four hours. This was the last great tragedy of the War. Later operations against the Indians were uniformly successful.

Death of King Philip

On August 12, 1676, Philip’s secret headquarters in Mount Hope near Bristol Rhode Island was discovered. Captain Church had been informed of Philip’s secret hideout by one of his warriors whose brother was killed by Philip for offering to negotiate with the English. Philip was slain along and his wife and children taken captive and sold into slavery in the West Indies. Five of his warriors died by his side while the others escaped through the woods. In Plymouth, King Philip’s body was drawn and quartered and his head was publicly displayed on a stake.

The Eastern War

Many of the Indians, who had been scattered by the successful tactics on the Connecticut, made their way to the Indian tribes in the neighborhood of Casco Bay, and incited them to rise against the white men. Hostilities began there in September, 1676, and attacks were soon made on Oyster River and Durham, N. H., and Exeter. An old man was shot down on the road to Hampton. York suffered on the 26th of September, and the whole country about the Piscataqua was in alarm. Men, women and little children were killed and scalped, houses and barns burned, and cattle driven away.

Mr. Hubbard gives a distressing account of the outrages committed by the Indians in the neighborhood of the Kennebec river. The whole country was a scene of desolation, houses burned, crops destroyed, and many lives lost. Early in October, the alarming tidings came that the settlement at Cape Neddick had been burned. Major Appleton was dispatched to the Eastward under orders, dated October 19th, to take charge of all the forces. He seems to have declined this responsibility, as the order was rescinded.

Mugg’s visit to Ipswich

A vigorous march was made to Ossipee, where it was reported there was a great gathering of Indians. The confrontations spread into a series of battles in Maine known as the Eastern War. On October 12, 1676 about 100 Indian warriors made an assault on an English settlement at Black Point near Portland, Maine and took a number of captives. A couple of weeks later an Arosagunticook chief named Mugg Hegon visited General Dennison in Piscataqua (Portsmouth) and declared that the Indians were desirous of peace. Mugg was taken, perhaps forcibly, to Boston for negotiations with a promise of safe passage, and on Nov. 6 he concluded a treaty with the English for the Eastern Indians.

While Mugg was away however, a force was sent to attack the Indians at their winter quarters. The fortification was burned but the Indians managed to escape. Among the captives in the first attack was the son of Harvard-educated Rev. Thomas Cobbett of Ipswich.

The pastor was not universally popular. A former parishioner claimed he “had as leave to hear a dog bark as to hear Mr. Cobbett preach” and Luke Perkins who lived near the wharf was whipped for saying the minister was “more fit to be in a hog sty than in a pulpit”. You can imagine the townspeople’s surprise when the ship carrying Mugg arrived at the Ipswich wharf, allowing Mugg to visit Rev. Cobbet at his home on East Street to negotiate a ransom for his son. The deal was struck, and when Mugg returned to Maine the young Cobbett was soon released in exchange for a coat as ransom to the Sagamore who was holding him. Mugg proposed to the English that he be allowed to go into the wilderness to bring back the captives, promising to return with them within four days. The vessels awaited his reappearance in vain.

An expedition was dispatched to the East under Major Walderne early in February, but it accomplished little and arrived back in Boston on the 11th of March. When Mugg heard about the attack during his absence, and knowing that his own people felt he had betrayed them, he rejoined the war and resumed hostilities in April. Again came the call for soldiers and again the dauntless men of Ipswich had their place in the little army that was hurried to the front. The enemy was close at hand in Wells, York, and Portsmouth, but the decisive event of the campaign happened at Black Point, where Captain Lovett’s company was led into an ambush and he and about forty of his command were slain. Mugg was killed at the reestablished garrison at Black Point on May 16, 1677, the place his forces had captured the preceding year, after conducting a second attack against the English. (read William Hubbard’s different version of this story)

General Denison

The contribution of Ipswich to the army was notable. General Denison was the commander-in-chief of all the forces of the Colony. Major Appleton brought the first campaign to a victorious close, and by his decisive repulse of the Indians at Hatfield and elsewhere saved not only the Connecticut towns from destruction, but delivered the Colony from their invasions. His services in the Narragansett winter campaign were of great value.

The danger came no nearer to Ipswich. Peace settled gradually upon the community wearied and worn with so many alarms. The strain upon the life of the Colony had been intense. The financial burden of equipping troops, maintaining them in the field, and meeting losses occasioned by the burning of houses and of whole towns was most oppressive. The drain upon the young life was exhausting. Scarcely a family could have escaped the anxiety due to the presence of some member in the field, or the grief over his death.

Ipswich soldiers in King Philip’s War

The following list of names has been compiled, which may be presumed to be substantially correct. Nathaniel Adams, Simon Adams, Alexander Alhor, Thomas Andrews, Richard Bidford, Job Bishop, Samuel Bishop, Christopher Bolles, Thomas Bray, Richard Briar, Josiah Briggs, John Browne, James Burbee, Andrew Burley, James Burnam, Thomas Burns, Samuel Chapman, John Chub, Josiah Clark, Isaac Cumins, Philemon Deane, John Denison, Thomas Dennis, Thomas Dow, Robert Dutch, John Edwards, Nathaniel Emerson, Peter Emons, Jonathan Fantum, Thomas Faussee, Ephraim Fellows, Isaac Fellows, Joseph Fellows, Abram Fitz, James Foord, Thomas French, Samuel Giddings, John Gilbert, Amos Gourdine, Simon Grow, Thomas Hobbs, William Hodgskin, Israeli Hunewell, Samuel Hunt, Jr., Samuel Itigols, Joseph Jacobs, Richard Jacobs, Thomas Jaques, Jeremiah Jewett, Joseph Jewett, Thomas Killom, Caleb Kimball, Abraham Knowlton, John Knowlton, John Lambert, Nathaniel Lampson, Richard Lewis, John Leyton, John Line, John Littlehale, Nathaniel Lord, Jolin Lovel, Jonathan Lummus, Peter Lurvey, Thomas Manning, Joseph Marshall, Thomas Meritor, Edward Neland, Benjamin Newman, Thomas Newman, Zaccheus Newmarsh, Richard Pasmore, Samuel Peirce, John Pengry, Aaron Pengry, John Pengry, Moses Pengry, Isaac Perkins, John Perkins, Samuel Perkins, Andrew Peters, Thomas Philips, Samuel Pipin, Samuel Pooler, Edmond Potter, John Potter, Richard Prior, Joseph Proctor, William Quarles, Daniel Ringe, Nathaniel Rogers, Israh Ross, Ariel Saddler, Joseph Safford, Thomas Scott, Samuel Smith, Thomas Smith, Thomas Sparks, Samuel Stevens, George Stimson, Seth Story, William Story, Samuel Taylor, John Thomas, Jonathan Wade, Thomas Wade, Uzall Warden. Francis Wainwright, Jacob Wainwright, Thomas Wayte, Benjamin Webster, John Whipple, Nathaniel Wood, Francis Young, and Lewis Zachariah.

Treatment of the Indians

In the treatment of the Indians, there was an excess of virulent hate that is painful, though not surprising. Allowance must be made for the natural hatred roused by the craft and cruelties of the Indians, and their ingratitude for kind treatment, yet a fair-minded man like Major Ciookin found much to blame in the unrighteous dealings of the English with “the inferior race.” Two hundred were captured by craft at Dover, though no crime was proved against them, and sold into slavery. King Philip’s son, a lad of tender years was sent to Barbadoes as a slave. Twenty shillings bounty was offered for every Indian scalp and forty shillings for every prisoner in the Eastern campaign. Captain Mosely captured an Indian woman early in the war, and in the postscript of his letter to the Governor, he wrote: “This aforesaid Indian was ordered to be torn in pieces by Dogs and she was so dealt withal.”

The Praying Indians

In 1646, the General Court of Massachusetts passed an “Act for the Propagation of the Gospel amongst the Indians.” Christian Indian towns were established in Eastern and Central Massachusetts, including Littleton, Chelmsford, Grafton, Marlborough, Hopkinton, Canton, Mendon and Natick, serving as a barrier between the Colonists and local tribes. At the beginning of King Philip’s War, Praying Indians offered their service as scouts to the English in Massachusetts but were generally confined to their villages. An Order for their removal was passed in October 1675, and 500 Christian Indians were confined to Deer island in Boston Harbor. When they were released in 1676, only 167 had survived. After the war, in 1677 the General Court of Massachusetts disbanded 10 of the original 14 towns and placed the rest under English supervision.

Daniel Gookin was a missionary to the Nipmuck Indians who he claimed were wrongly persecuted by Colonial forces. In his letter, Historical Account of the Doings and Sufferings of the Christian Indians in New England in the Years 1675-1677 he accuses the New England colonists as overcome by a “spirit of enmity and hatred” for not realising that they were subjugating those who had “proved so faithful to the English interest.”

The war had terrible consequences for both sides. Thousands of Algonquians were killed and hundreds were sold into slavery, resulting in the end of the Algonquian world.

References and further reading:

    by Thomas Franklin Waters by William M. Hubbard Ellis and Morris by J. H. Temple by George M. Bodge by John Stevens Cabot by Henry Trumbull, Mrs. Johnson (Susannah Willard), Zadock Steele

The Legend of Heartbreak Hill - "In Ipswich town, not far from the sea, rises a hill which the people call Heartbreak Hill, and its history is an old, old legend known to all." The Great Dying 1616-1619, “By God’s visitation, a wonderful plague” - An estimated 18,000,000 Native Americans lived in North America before the 17th Century. The arrival of 102 Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower at Plymouth in 1620 and the settlements by the Puritans a decade later were accompanied by the demise of the native population of North America. Who Were the Agawam Indians, Really? - It’s hard for people to change their stories—so embedded in deep time and official canon, even when there is a better explanation or a closer truth. I hope it will be possible to change public knowledge about the Native Americans who lived here and get closer to the truth.

The Amazing Story of Hannah Duston, March 14, 1697 - Hannah Duston was born in Ipswich in 1657 while her mother was visiting her relatives the Shatswells. A bronze statue in Haverhill honors her daring escape, killing and scalping a dozen Abanaki captors.

The Bull Brook Paleo-Indian Discovery - in the early 1950's, a group of young amateur archeologists men discovered one of the largest Paleo-Indian sites in North America along the banks of Bull Brook and the Egypt River in Ipswich, with over 6,000 artifacts uncovered.

Emma Jane Mitchell Safford - Emma Jane Mitchell Safford was a descendant of Massasoit, Sachem of the Wampanoag. Her daughter, also Emma, tried to help her relatives regain land taken from them on the reservation.

Ipswich, the Brookfield Massacre and King Philip’s War - In 1660, a group of Ipswich families settled in Quaboag which they renamed Brookfield. Indian attacks in 1675 resulted in its destruction.

Living Descendants of the Native Americans of Agawam - Descendants of the Pawtucket are living in Abenaki, Pequaket, Penobscot, and Micmac communities today in Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine, and Nova Scotia. The Tragedy of the Wilderness: The Colonists and Indian Land, Part 4 - Native Americans and settlers managed to impoverish themselves through overexploitation of the wider environment. At the same time, they both also selectively protected species, custom-designed habitats for them, and practiced common-sense conservation of trees, soil, fish stocks, and water

“Brought to Civility” — The Colonists and Indian Land, Part 2 - The idea of private property was alien to Native Americans, but the practice of private ownership apparently was not a feature of colonial life either. Discovery of native American shell heap on Treadwell’s Island, 1882 - In1882, a shell heap on the shore of Treadwell's Island was observed to contain nearly two quarts of human bones, broken into short pieces. Native American Influence on English Fashions - In contact situations in the early 17th century, Europeans were quick to grasp the essential humanity of Native Americans and admired their appearance and physical fitness. Soon, upper-class English wore American feathers and furs, Native Americans prized English woven fabrics and garments, especially tailored shirts.

PTSD in the Massachusetts Bay Colony - The Great Migration brought nearly 14,000 Puritan settlers, unprepared for the hardships and trauma that awaited them. Building a new society in the wilderness induced transgenerational post-traumatic stress and mass conversion disorder, culminating in the Salem Witch Trials.

The Bones of Masconomet - On March 6, 1659 a young man named Robert Cross dug up the remains of the Agawam chief Masconomet, and carried his skull on a pole through Ipswich streets, an act for which Cross was imprisoned, sent to the stocks, then returned to prison until a fine was paid. Ancient Prejudice against “the Indians” Persists in Essex County Today - Beneath broad acceptance of Indian rights and benign admiration for aspects of Native culture lies inherited hostility toward Native people. Unrecognized, it has gone unchallenged, but locally I have found it evident in these six ways. Disorder in the Corn Fields: The Colonists and Indian Land, Part 3 - Today, vestiges of the Commons survive here as city parks or conservation lands, such as the South Green in Ipswich, and public gardens, such as Boston Common.

“That we may avoid the least scrupulo of intrusion” – The Colonists and Indian Land, Part I - More than the concepts of sovereignty and private property, the commodification of nature in the service of mercantile capitalism was the crux of the problem.

Manitou in Context - The creator power was regarded as the equal of other powers in the skyworld and the underworld, but it is Kitanitowit’s Gitchi Manitou that ascended to prominence under the influence of Christianity. Of all the great spirits, it most resembled the Christian God and was transformed accordingly during the Contact Period.


Ver el vídeo: The Sudbury Fight, 1676: A Decisive Native American Victory in King Philips War (Julio 2022).


Comentarios:

  1. Moogurr

    Está usted equivocado. Puedo defender mi posición. Escríbeme en PM, hablamos.

  2. Cheyne

    Puedo recomendar ir al sitio, donde hay muchos artículos sobre el tema que le interesa.

  3. Tygohn

    Es una pena que no pueda hablar ahora, tengo prisa por llegar al trabajo. Seré liberado, definitivamente expresaré mi opinión.



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