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Este día en la historia: 14/04/1865 - Lincoln recibe un disparo

Este día en la historia: 14/04/1865 - Lincoln recibe un disparo


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Abraham Lincoln recibe un disparo de John Wilkes Booth en el teatro Ford, se publica el diccionario Webster, se abre la primera tienda de J.C. Penny y el Titanic choca contra un iceberg en el video de Este día en la historia. La fecha es el 14 de abril. Noah Webster, lexicógrafo, es el encargado de compilar el primer diccionario.


14-15 de abril de 1865: Las trágicas horas finales de Abraham Lincoln

El asesinato del presidente Abraham Lincoln es uno de los eventos más tristes en la historia de Estados Unidos. Sin embargo, la mañana del 14 de abril de 1865, el presidente se despertó de un humor excepcionalmente bueno. Un día menos de una semana antes, el Domingo de Ramos, 9 de abril, Robert E. Lee, el comandante de lo que quedaba del Ejército de los Estados Confederados, se rindió a Ulysses S. Grant, el comandante general de la Unión. La tregua alcanzada en Appomattox, Virginia, Court House marcó el final del capítulo más destructivo de la nación, la Guerra Civil.

Para celebrarlo, el Sr. y la Sra. Lincoln decidieron asistir a la exitosa comedia de farsa "Our American Cousin", que se proyectaba en el Ford's Theatre. Los Lincoln invitaron al general Grant y su esposa a asistir a la obra con ellos. Sin embargo, en una reunión del gabinete más tarde esa mañana, el general Grant le informó al presidente Lincoln que no podrían unirse a la primera pareja y, en cambio, visitarían a sus hijos en Nueva Jersey.

Aún más inquietante, el irritable secretario de Guerra, Edwin Stanton, le suplicó al presidente que no saliera esa noche por temor a un posible asesinato. Stanton no fue el único asesor presidencial en contra de la salida. La Sra. Lincoln casi se rindió, quejándose de uno de sus frecuentes dolores de cabeza. E incluso el presidente Lincoln se quejó de sentirse exhausto como resultado de sus pesadas obligaciones presidenciales. Sin embargo, insistió en que una noche de comedia era el tónico que necesitaban él y su esposa. El Sr. Lincoln, confiado en que sus guardaespaldas lo protegerían de cualquier daño potencial, hizo caso omiso de las advertencias e invitó al mayor Henry Rathbone y a su prometida, Clara Harris, a pasar una noche en el teatro con ellos.

Litografía del asesinato de Abraham Lincoln. De izquierda a derecha: Henry Rathbone, Clara Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln y John Wilkes Booth. Rathbone es representado viendo a Booth antes de que le disparara a Lincoln y tratando de detenerlo mientras Booth disparaba su arma. De la Biblioteca del Congreso

El principal guardaespaldas de Lincoln, Ward Hill Lamon, no asistió a la obra y, en cambio, John Parker, un guardia policial conocido por su amor por el whisky, protegió al presidente. Parker dejó su puesto fuera del palco presidencial durante el intermedio para satisfacer un antojo alcohólico en el cercano Star Saloon.

La pistola Derringer utilizada por John Wilkes Booth para disparar a Abraham Lincoln. Foto de Mandel Ngan / AFP / Getty Images

Durante el tercer acto, mientras los Lincoln se reían y se tomaban de las manos, un hombre irrumpió en el palco sin vigilancia. El intruso, por supuesto, fue el actor y simpatizante confederado John Wilkes Booth. El asesino disparó su pistola Derringer en la nuca de Lincoln. El mayor Rathbone intentó derribar a Booth, pero el asesino lo dominó cortándole el brazo con una daga. Los historiadores, como suelen hacer, discuten sobre si Booth gritó "¡Sic Semper Tyrannis!" ("¡Así siempre a los tiranos!") Antes o poco después de que le disparara al presidente (Aparte de la controversia sobre el momento de la exclamación de Booth, algunos han afirmado que dijo "¡El sur está vengado!", "¡Venganza para el sur!" O incluso "¡Lo he hecho!"). Sabemos que Booth saltó del palco al escenario, atrapó su espuela en la cortina y pudo haberse roto la espinilla izquierda (otra fuente de controversia entre los historiadores). De alguna manera se las arregló para alejarse cojeando y salir por la puerta del escenario, iniciando así una de las persecuciones más intensas en la historia de Estados Unidos.

Sin embargo, cuando se trata de antecedentes médicos, no es la extremidad lesionada de Booth lo que captura nuestra imaginación. En cambio, son las horas de agonía que soportó el presidente herido antes de sucumbir finalmente la madrugada del 15 de abril.

Mientras los miembros de la audiencia gritaban que el presidente había sido asesinado y gritaban súplicas para atrapar y matar al culpable que escapaba, el primer médico que atendió a Lincoln fue un capitán del ejército de 23 años llamado Charles A. Leale. Acababa de recibir su título de médico seis semanas antes, el 1 de marzo, en el Bellevue Hospital Medical College de Nueva York, considerado uno de los mejores del país. Leale estaba entre el público esa noche después de enterarse de que Lincoln, a quien admiraba mucho, estaría en el Ford's Theatre.

Ford & # 8217s Theatre, con guardias apostados en la entrada y crepé colgando de las ventanas, alrededor de 1865. Foto de Buyenlarge / Getty Images

El Dr. Leale percibió de inmediato, por el sentido del tacto a lo largo de la herida ensangrentada, que la bala había entrado en la cabeza del presidente justo detrás de su oreja izquierda y atravesó el lado izquierdo de su cerebro. Al enviar por un poco de brandy y agua, el Dr. Leale recordó: “Cuando llegué al presidente, estaba en un estado de parálisis general, tenía los ojos cerrados y estaba en una condición profundamente comatosa, mientras que su respiración era intermitente y extremadamente estertorosa ( es decir, ruidoso y laborioso). Puse mi dedo en su pulso radial derecho pero no pude percibir ningún movimiento de la arteria ".

Mientras examinaba la cabeza de Lincoln, los dedos de Leale pasaron sobre un "gran coágulo de sangre firme situado aproximadamente a una pulgada por debajo de la línea curva superior del hueso occipital" (en la base posterior del cráneo). El joven médico extrajo el coágulo, metió el dedo meñique en el agujero hecho por la "bola" (el nombre de las balas redondas que se usaban en la década de 1860) y descubrió que había llegado al cerebro. Esta maniobra puede parecer impactante para un observador del siglo XXI, pero en los días antes de que los médicos supieran algo sobre microbiología, y mucho menos sobre técnicas quirúrgicas estériles, era una práctica común para examinar heridas de bala. El Dr. Leale determinó rápidamente que se trataba de una herida mortal.

Después de unos minutos, la respiración de Lincoln pareció recuperarse un poco y el Dr. Leale pudo beber un poco de brandy y agua en la boca del presidente. Para entonces, otros dos médicos, C.F. Taft y A.F.A. King llegó a la escena y los tres decidieron trasladar al presidente moribundo al otro lado de la calle, a la pensión de William y Anna Petersen, en el 453 10th St. (ahora 516 10th St.) Allí, lo llevaron arriba para descansar en la habitación. de un soldado de la Unión llamado William T. Clark, que estuvo fuera por la noche.

Los macabros detalles de las últimas horas de Lincoln se hicieron mucho más claros en 2012 cuando Helena Iles Papaioannou, asistente de investigación que trabaja en el Proyecto Papeles de Abraham Lincoln, buscaba en los libros de contabilidad de "Cartas recibidas" de la Oficina del Cirujano General, que se encuentran depositados en los Archivos Nacionales de EE. UU. Fue en estos archivos, bajo la letra "L", donde encontró un informe de 22 páginas que la Dra. Leale escribió pocas horas después de la muerte del presidente Lincoln. De hecho, existen siete relatos de Leale, cinco que datan de 1865, uno de 1867 y otro de 1909. Cada versión es similar, aunque cada una contiene algunas variaciones y ligeras diferencias de terminología y tono. Sin embargo, muchos estudiosos de Lincoln han considerado que el documento Papaioannou es la versión más confiable porque fue escrito muy de cerca después de los eventos reales.

La habitación en la que murió el presidente Abraham Lincoln, en la Casa Petersen en Washington, DC, al otro lado de la calle del Ford & # 8217s Theatre, alrededor de 1960. La cama es una réplica del lecho de muerte real que fue adquirido por el Museo de Historia de Chicago en 1920. Foto por Archive Photos / Getty Images

Dada la altura legendaria del presidente Lincoln, lo colocaron en la cama en una posición diagonal con "una parte del pie (de la cama) quitada para permitirnos colocarlo en una posición cómoda". Se abrieron las ventanas de la habitación y, con la excepción de los médicos que atendían al presidente, su esposa y su hijo Robert, y varios de los asesores más cercanos del presidente Lincoln, se despejó la pequeña habitación. Los cirujanos intentaron sondear la herida introduciendo instrumentos quirúrgicos (y sus manos sin lavar) en el orificio de la bala con la esperanza de extraer la bola de plomo y los trozos de hueso desprendidos. La cirugía del cerebro es una especialidad médica casi inexistente en este momento de la historia, la única esperanza de los médicos era que al mantener la herida abierta, la sangre pudiera fluir más libremente y no comprimir más el cerebro, causando aún más lesiones. Lamentablemente, sus esfuerzos fueron en vano y, a medida que avanzaban las horas de la mañana, el curso de Lincoln solo fue cuesta abajo.

El Dr. Leale escribió: A las 7:20 a. M. Dio su último suspiro y & # 8220 el espíritu huyó a Dios, quien lo dio ”. Foto de Archivos Nacionales

A las 6:40 a.m., escribió el Dr. Leale, “su pulso no se podía contar, siendo muy intermitente, se sentían dos o tres pulsaciones y seguían un intermedio, cuando no se podía sentir el más mínimo movimiento de la arteria. Las inspiraciones ahora se hicieron muy cortas, y las expiraciones muy prolongadas y laboriosas acompañadas de un sonido gutural ”.

A las 6:50 a.m., el Dr. Leale volvió a registrar lo que observó: “Las respiraciones cesan por algún tiempo y todos miran ansiosamente sus relojes hasta que el profundo silencio es perturbado por una inspiración prolongada, que pronto fue seguida por una espiración sonora. El Cirujano General (Joseph K. Barnes) ahora llevó su dedo a la arteria carótida, el Coronel (Charles) Crane sostuvo su cabeza, el Dr. (Robert) Stone (el médico de familia de Lincoln) que estaba sentado en la cama, sostuvo su mano izquierda pulso, y su pulso derecho fue controlado por mí.

& # 8220A las 7:20 am, & # 8221 escribió, & # 8220 exhaló su último suspiro y (aquí, Leale parafrasea Eclesiastés 12: 7) 'el espíritu huyó a Dios que lo dio' ”. (La mayoría de los historiadores dan el tiempo de muerte a las 7:22 am)

Más famoso, el Secretario de Guerra Stanton saludó al presidente caído y pronunció: "Ahora, él pertenece a las edades". (Algunos han argumentado que Stanton dijo: "Ahora, él pertenece a los ángeles"). Stanton elogió aún más al presidente Lincoln con la acertada observación: & # 8220 Ahí yace el gobernante más perfecto de hombres que el mundo haya visto jamás & # 8221.

De una manera extraña, los eventos del 14 y 15 de abril representaron la encarnación de la peor pesadilla de Lincoln. Apenas tres días antes de su muerte, Abraham Lincoln le dijo al guardaespaldas Ward Hill Lamon que había soñado con un funeral que tuvo lugar en el East Room de la Casa Blanca. En el sueño, le preguntó a un soldado apostado cerca del ataúd: "¿Quién está muerto?" El soldado respondió: "¡El presidente, asesinado por un asesino!" El presidente también señaló: “Luego vino un fuerte estallido de dolor de la multitud, que me despertó de mi sueño. No dormí más esa noche y, aunque solo fue un sueño, desde entonces me ha molestado extrañamente ".

El Dr. Leale pasó a una carrera distinguida como médico, después de una baja honorable del Ejército de los Estados Unidos en 1866 como "capitán brevet". Viajó a Europa y estudió cólera durante la gran pandemia de cólera de 1866. Se casó en 1867, tuvo seis hijos, practicó con éxito la medicina y trabajó en varias causas benéficas en la ciudad de Nueva York hasta su jubilación en 1928 a la edad de 86 años. Pero su mayor aventura médica ocurrió pocas semanas después de recibir su título de médico. Esa fue la noche y el día, hace 150 años, cuando el Dr. Leale se hizo cargo del decimosexto presidente de los Estados Unidos, quien exhaló su último aliento temprano en la mañana del 15 de abril de 1865, debido al acto desquiciado de un asesino loco. .

El Dr. Howard Markel escribe una columna mensual para PBS NewsHour, destacando el aniversario de un evento trascendental que continúa dando forma a la medicina moderna. Es director del Centro de Historia de la Medicina y Profesor Distinguido de Historia de la Medicina George E. Wantz en la Universidad de Michigan.

Es autor o editor de 10 libros, incluido & # 8220Quarantine! Inmigrantes judíos de Europa del Este y las epidemias de la ciudad de Nueva York de 1892, & # 8221 & # 8220 Cuando los gérmenes viajan: Seis grandes epidemias que han invadido Estados Unidos desde 1900 y los temores que han desatado & # 8221 y & # 8220 Una anatomía de la adicción: Sigmund Freud, William Halsted y la droga milagrosa cocaína. & # 8221

Izquierda: Pintura de la muerte del presidente Abraham Lincoln, alrededor de 1865. Foto de Fotosearch / Getty Images


En este día: Abraham Lincoln baleado en la cabeza por el actor John Wilkes Booth

Fue en este día, hace exactamente 156 años, cuando uno de los presidentes más grandes que Estados Unidos haya tenido fue asesinado.

El 14 de abril de 1865, Abraham Lincoln asistía a la obra "Our American Cousin" en el Ford's Theatre de Washington, D.C., cuando John Wilkes Booth entró en el palco del presidente y le disparó en la nuca con una sola bala. Lincoln murió al día siguiente.

En esa fatídica noche, Booth pudo deslizarse silenciosamente dentro del palco del teatro de Lincoln cuando el guardia de este último, John Parker, dejó su puesto para tomar una cerveza por aburrimiento durante la obra. Se dice que Booth, al dispararle a la cabeza del presidente, gritó: “¡Sic semper tyrannis! (¡Siempre así a los tiranos!) El Sur está vengado ”, mientras saltaba desde el balcón para escapar.

Booth fue localizado y asesinado después de una persecución de 12 días, después de haber recibido un disparo mientras se escondía dentro de un granero en llamas en Virginia. El 26 de abril de ese año, rodeado por miles de soldados de la Unión, Booth encontró su fin en la granja de Richard Garrett cuando el cabo Boston Corbett le disparó, según History.com.

Lincoln es conocido por los estadounidenses por haber sido uno de los líderes más excepcionales que haya tenido el país. Además de liderar el país durante la Guerra Civil estadounidense, el presidente lideró con compasión y presionó por la libertad de los esclavos en todo el país, un sentimiento que Booth no compartía.

Booth, un actor de teatro profesional muy respetado en el sur, era un devoto partidario de la esclavitud y un feroz simpatizante de la Confederación durante la Guerra Civil. Con la ayuda de otros conspiradores, Booth planeó asesinar a Lincoln la misma noche que sus otros dos posibles sucesores, Andrew Johnson y William Seward, con la esperanza de provocar el caos en el gobierno.

De los tres asesinatos planeados para esa noche, solo el de Lincoln tuvo éxito. Uno de los co-conspiradores de Booth se retiró de su parte para matar a Johnson, mientras que el otro solo pudo herir a Seward.

Solo tres días antes del asesinato de Lincoln, Booth asistió a uno de sus discursos y reaccionó enérgicamente a la sugerencia del presidente de promover los derechos de voto para los negros. "Ahora, por Dios, lo haré pasar", dijo Booth enojado, un voto que cumpliría más tarde, esa fatídica noche del 14 de abril.


Contenido

Plan abandonado para secuestrar a Lincoln

John Wilkes Booth, nacido en Maryland en una familia de destacados actores de teatro, en el momento del asesinato se había convertido en un actor famoso y una celebridad nacional por derecho propio. También fue un franco simpatizante confederado a finales de 1860 fue iniciado en los Caballeros del Círculo Dorado pro-Confederados en Baltimore. [5]: 67

En marzo de 1864, Ulysses S. Grant, comandante de los ejércitos de la Unión, suspendió el intercambio de prisioneros de guerra con el Ejército Confederado [6] para aumentar la presión sobre el Sur hambriento de mano de obra. Booth concibió un plan para secuestrar a Lincoln con el fin de chantajear al Norte para que reanudara los intercambios de prisioneros, [7]: 130–4 y reclutó a Samuel Arnold, George Atzerodt, David Herold, Michael O'Laughlen, Lewis Powell (también conocido como "Lewis Paine ") y John Surratt para ayudarlo. La madre de Surratt, Mary Surratt, dejó su taberna en Surrattsville, Maryland, y se mudó a una casa en Washington, DC, donde Booth se convirtió en un visitante frecuente.

Si bien Booth y Lincoln no se conocían personalmente, Lincoln había visto a Booth en Ford's en 1863. [8]: 419 [9] [10] Después del asesinato, el actor Frank Mordaunt escribió que Lincoln, quien aparentemente no albergaba sospechas sobre Booth, admiraba el actor y lo había invitado repetidamente (sin éxito) a visitar la Casa Blanca. [11]: 325–6 Booth asistió a la segunda toma de posesión de Lincoln el 4 de marzo de 1865, y luego escribió en su diario: "¡Qué oportunidad tan excelente tuve, si lo deseaba, de matar al presidente el día de la toma de posesión!" [7]: 174,437n41

El 17 de marzo, Booth y los otros conspiradores planearon secuestrar a Lincoln cuando regresaba de una obra de teatro en el Hospital Militar de Campbell. Pero Lincoln no fue a la obra, sino que asistió a una ceremonia en el Hotel Nacional [7]: 185 Booth vivía en el Hotel Nacional en ese momento y, si no hubiera ido al hospital por el intento de secuestro abortado, podría haber sido capaz de atacar a Lincoln en el hotel. [7]: 185–6,439n17 [12]: 25

Mientras tanto, la Confederación se derrumbaba. El 3 de abril, Richmond, Virginia, la capital confederada, cayó ante el Ejército de la Unión. El 9 de abril, el General en Jefe de los Ejércitos de los Estados Confederados Robert E. Lee y su Ejército del Norte de Virginia se rindieron al Comandante General del Ejército de los Estados Unidos Ulysses S. Grant y su Ejército del Potomac después de la Batalla de Appomattox. Palacio de Justicia. El presidente confederado Jefferson Davis y otros funcionarios confederados habían huido. Sin embargo, Booth siguió creyendo en la causa confederada y buscó una forma de salvarla. [13]: 728

Motivo

Hay varias teorías sobre las motivaciones de Booth. En una carta a su madre, escribió sobre su deseo de vengar al Sur. [14] Doris Kearns Goodwin ha respaldado la idea de que otro factor fue la rivalidad de Booth con su conocido hermano mayor, el actor Edwin Booth, quien era un unionista leal. [15] David S. Reynolds cree que Booth admiraba mucho al abolicionista John Brown. [16] La hermana de Booth, Asia, Booth Clarke lo citó diciendo: "¡John Brown era un hombre inspirado, el personaje más grandioso del siglo!" [16] [17] El 11 de abril, Booth asistió al último discurso de Lincoln, en el que Lincoln promovió el derecho al voto para los negros. [18] Booth dijo: "Eso significa ciudadanía negra ... Ese es el último discurso que dará". [19]

Enfurecido, Booth instó a Lewis Powell a que disparara a Lincoln en el acto. Se desconoce si Booth hizo esta solicitud porque no estaba armado o porque consideraba que Powell era mejor tirador que él (Powell, a diferencia de Booth, había servido en el Ejército Confederado y, por lo tanto, tenía experiencia militar). En cualquier caso, Powell se negó por miedo a la multitud, y Booth no pudo o no quiso intentar personalmente matar al presidente. Sin embargo, Booth le dijo a David Herold: "Por Dios, lo haré pasar". [20] [8]: 91

Las premoniciones de Lincoln

Según Ward Hill Lamon, tres días antes de su muerte, Lincoln relató un sueño en el que deambulaba por la Casa Blanca en busca de la fuente de sonidos tristes:

Seguí adelante hasta que llegué al East Room, al que entré. Allí me encontré con una espantosa sorpresa. Ante mí había un catafalco, sobre el que descansaba un cadáver envuelto en vestimentas funerarias. A su alrededor había soldados apostados que actuaban como guardias y había una multitud de personas que miraban con tristeza el cadáver, cuyo rostro estaba cubierto, otros llorando lastimeramente. "¿Quién está muerto en la Casa Blanca?" Le pregunté a uno de los soldados, "El presidente", fue su respuesta "fue asesinado por un asesino". [21]

Sin embargo, Lincoln continuó diciéndole a Lamon que "en este sueño no fui yo, sino otro tipo, el que fue asesinado. Parece que este asesino fantasmal probó suerte con otra persona". [22] [23] El investigador paranormal Joe Nickell escribe que los sueños de asesinato no serían inesperados en primer lugar, considerando el complot de Baltimore y un intento de asesinato adicional en el que se hizo un agujero en el sombrero de Lincoln. [22]

Durante meses, Lincoln se había visto pálido y demacrado, pero la mañana del asesinato le dijo a la gente lo feliz que estaba. La Primera Dama Mary Todd Lincoln sintió que tal conversación podría traer mala suerte. [24]: 346 Lincoln le dijo a su gabinete que había soñado con estar en una "embarcación singular e indescriptible que se movía con gran rapidez hacia una orilla oscura e indefinida", y que había tenido el mismo sueño antes "casi todos los grandes y acontecimiento importante de la guerra "como las victorias en Antietam, Murfreesboro, Gettysburg y Vicksburg. [25]

El 14 de abril, la mañana de Booth comenzó a la medianoche. Le escribió a su madre que todo estaba bien pero que tenía "prisa". En su diario, escribió que "Nuestra causa casi se pierde, algo decisivo y hay que hacer lo grande ". [13]: 728 [24]: 346

Mientras visitaba el Ford's Theatre alrededor del mediodía para recoger su correo, Booth se enteró de que Lincoln y Grant iban a ver Nuestro primo americano allí esa noche. Esto le brindó una oportunidad especialmente buena para atacar a Lincoln ya que, después de haber actuado allí varias veces, conocía el diseño del teatro y estaba familiarizado con su personal. [12]: 12 [8]: 108–9 Fue a la pensión de Mary Surratt en Washington, DC, y le pidió que le entregara un paquete en su taberna en Surrattsville, Maryland. También le pidió que le dijera a su inquilino Louis J. Weichmann que preparara las armas y municiones que Booth había almacenado previamente en la taberna. [12]: 19

Los conspiradores se reunieron por última vez a las 8:45 p.m. Booth asignó a Lewis Powell para que matara al secretario de Estado William H. Seward en su casa, a George Atzerodt para que matara al vicepresidente Andrew Johnson en el hotel Kirkwood y a David E. Herold para que guiara a Powell (que no estaba familiarizado con Washington) a la casa de Seward y luego a una cita con Booth en Maryland.

John Wilkes Booth fue el único miembro conocido de la conspiración. Es probable que asumiera razonablemente (pero en última instancia, incorrectamente) que la entrada del palco presidencial estaría vigilada y que sería el único conspirador con una posibilidad plausible de acceder al presidente, o al menos de acceder al palco. sin ser registrado primero en busca de armas. Booth planeaba dispararle a Lincoln a quemarropa con su Deringer de un solo disparo y luego apuñalar a Grant en el Ford's Theatre. Todos iban a atacar simultáneamente poco después de las diez. [8]: 112 Atzerodt trató de retirarse del complot, que hasta ese momento sólo había implicado secuestro, no asesinato, pero Booth lo presionó para que continuara. [7]: 212

Lincoln llega al teatro

A pesar de lo que Booth había escuchado ese mismo día, Grant y su esposa, Julia Grant, se habían negado a acompañar a los Lincoln, ya que Mary Lincoln y Julia Grant no se llevaban bien. [26]: 45 [b] Otros en sucesión también rechazaron la invitación del Lincoln, hasta que finalmente el mayor Henry Rathbone y su prometida Clara Harris (hija del senador de Nueva York Ira Harris) aceptaron. [12]: 32 En un momento, Mary Lincoln desarrolló un dolor de cabeza y estaba inclinada a quedarse en casa, pero Lincoln le dijo que debía asistir porque los periódicos habían anunciado que lo haría. [28] El lacayo de Lincoln, William H. Crook, le aconsejó que no fuera, pero Lincoln dijo que se lo había prometido a su esposa. [29] Lincoln le dijo al presidente de la Cámara de Representantes, Schuyler Colfax, "Supongo que es hora de irme, aunque prefiero quedarme" antes de ayudar a Mary a subir al carruaje.

El partido presidencial llegó tarde y se acomodó en su palco (dos palcos contiguos sin una partición divisoria). La obra fue interrumpida y la orquesta tocó "Hail to the Chief" mientras la casa llena de unos 1.700 aplausos se alzó. [30] Lincoln se sentó en una mecedora que había sido seleccionada para él entre los muebles personales de la familia Ford. [31] [32]

El elenco modificó una línea de la obra en honor a Lincoln: cuando la heroína pidió un asiento protegido del draft, la respuesta, escrita como "Bueno, no eres el único que quiere escapar del draft", fue entregado en su lugar como "¡El borrador ya ha sido detenido por orden del presidente!" [33] Un miembro de la audiencia observó que Mary Lincoln a menudo llamaba la atención de su esposo sobre aspectos de la acción en el escenario y "parecía disfrutar mucho al presenciar su disfrute". [34]

En un momento, Mary Lincoln le susurró a Lincoln, que le sostenía la mano: "¿Qué pensará la señorita Harris de que me aferre a ti?". Lincoln respondió: "Ella no pensará nada al respecto". [12]: 39 En los años siguientes, estas palabras se consideraron tradicionalmente las últimas de Lincoln, aunque N.W. Miner, un amigo de la familia, afirmó en 1882 que Mary Lincoln le dijo que las últimas palabras de Lincoln expresaban un deseo de visitar Jerusalén. [35]

Booth dispara a Lincoln

Con Crook fuera de servicio y Ward Hill Lamon fuera, se asignó al policía John Frederick Parker para vigilar el palco del presidente. [36] En el intermedio fue a una taberna cercana junto con el ayuda de cámara de Lincoln, Charles Forbes, y el cochero Francis Burke. También era la misma taberna que Booth esperaba tomando varios tragos para preparar su tiempo. No está claro si regresó al teatro, pero ciertamente no estaba en su puesto cuando Booth entró al palco. [37] En cualquier caso, no hay certeza de que se le haya negado la entrada a una celebridad como Booth. Booth había preparado una abrazadera para bloquear la puerta después de entrar en la caja, lo que indica que esperaba un guardia. Después de pasar un tiempo en el salón, Booth entró al Ford's Theatre por última vez alrededor de las 10:10 pm, esta vez, a través de la entrada principal del teatro. Pasó por el círculo de vestimentas y se dirigió a la puerta que conducía al Palco Presidencial después de mostrarle a Charles Forbes su tarjeta de visita. El cirujano de la Armada George Brainerd Todd vio llegar a Booth: [38]

Alrededor de las 10:25 pm, un hombre entró y caminó lentamente por el lado en el que estaba la caja "Pres" y escuché a un hombre decir, "Ahí está Booth" y giré la cabeza para mirarlo. Seguía caminando muy lento y estaba cerca de la puerta de la caja cuando se detuvo, sacó una tarjeta de su bolsillo, escribió algo en ella y se la dio al acomodador que la llevó a la caja. En un minuto se abrió la puerta y entró.

Una vez dentro del pasillo, Booth bloqueó la puerta colocando un palo entre ella y la pared. Desde aquí, una segunda puerta conducía al palco de Lincoln. Hay evidencia de que, más temprano en el día, Booth había perforado una mirilla en esta segunda puerta, aunque esto no es seguro. [39] [40]: 173

Booth se sabía la obra de memoria y esperó a cronometrar su disparo alrededor de las 10:15 p. M., Con la risa de una de las divertidas líneas de la obra, pronunciada por el actor Harry Hawk: "Bueno, supongo que sé lo suficiente para darte la vuelta. ¡Fuera, vieja, estás disculpándote viejo-trampa! ". Lincoln se estaba riendo de esta línea [41]: 96 cuando Booth abrió la puerta, dio un paso adelante y le disparó a Lincoln por detrás con una derringer. [2]

La bala entró en el cráneo de Lincoln detrás de su oreja izquierda, atravesó su cerebro y se detuvo cerca de la parte frontal del cráneo después de fracturar ambas placas orbitales. [c] [44] Lincoln se desplomó en su silla y luego cayó hacia atrás. [46] [47] Rathbone se volvió para ver a Booth parado en humo de pistola a menos de cuatro pies detrás de Lincoln Booth gritó una palabra que Rathbone pensó que sonaba como "¡Libertad!" [48]

La cabina se escapa

Rathbone saltó de su asiento y luchó con Booth, quien dejó caer la pistola y sacó un cuchillo, con el que apuñaló a Rathbone en el antebrazo izquierdo. Rathbone volvió a agarrar a Booth mientras Booth se preparaba para saltar de la caja al escenario, una caída de doce pies [49] La espuela de montar de Booth se enredó en la bandera del Tesoro que decoraba la caja, y aterrizó torpemente sobre su pie izquierdo. Cuando comenzó a cruzar el escenario, muchos en la audiencia pensaron que él era parte de la obra.

Booth sostuvo su cuchillo ensangrentado sobre su cabeza y gritó algo a la audiencia. Si bien tradicionalmente se sostiene que Booth gritó el lema del estado de Virginia, ¡Sic Semper tyrannis! ("Así siempre a los tiranos") ya sea desde el palco o desde el escenario, los relatos de los testigos entran en conflicto. [13]: 739 Audiencia más recordada ¡Sic Semper tyrannis! pero otros, incluido el propio Booth, dijeron que solo gritó Sic semper! [50] [51] (Algunos no recordaban que Booth dijera nada en latín.) Existe una incertidumbre similar acerca de lo que Booth gritó a continuación, en inglés: "¡El sur está vengado!", [12]: 48 "Venganza para el sur". ! ", o" ¡El Sur será libre! " (Dos testigos recordaron las palabras de Booth como: "¡Lo he hecho!")

Inmediatamente después de que Booth aterrizara en el escenario, el mayor Joseph B. Stewart se subió al foso de la orquesta y las candilejas y persiguió a Booth por el escenario. [49] Los gritos de Mary Lincoln y Clara Harris, y los gritos de Rathbone de "¡Detén a ese hombre!" [12]: 49 incitó a otros a unirse a la persecución cuando estalló el pandemonio.

Booth cruzó corriendo el escenario y salió por una puerta lateral, en el camino apuñalando al líder de la orquesta William Withers, Jr. [52] [53] Había dejado un caballo en el callejón. Cuando saltó a la silla, Booth apartó a Joseph Burroughs, [d] que había estado sujetando el caballo, golpeando a Burroughs con el mango de su cuchillo. [54] [55] [56] [1]

Muerte de Lincoln

Charles Leale, un joven cirujano del ejército, se abrió paso entre la multitud hacia la puerta del palco de Lincoln, pero no pudo abrirla hasta que Rathbone, en el interior, notó y quitó la abrazadera de madera con la que Booth había cerrado la puerta. [8]: 120

Leale encontró a Lincoln sentado con la cabeza inclinada hacia la derecha [43] mientras Mary lo sostenía y sollozaba: "Sus ojos estaban cerrados y estaba en una condición profundamente comatosa, mientras que su respiración era intermitente y extremadamente estertorosa". [57] [58] Pensando que Lincoln había sido apuñalado, Leale lo tiró al suelo. Mientras tanto, otro médico, Charles Sabin Taft, fue subido al palco desde el escenario.

Después de que el transeúnte William Kent y Leale cortaron el cuello de Lincoln mientras desabotonaban el abrigo y la camisa de Lincoln y no encontraron ninguna herida de arma blanca, Leale localizó la herida de bala detrás de la oreja izquierda. Encontró que la bala era demasiado profunda para extraerla, pero desprendió un coágulo, después de lo cual la respiración de Lincoln mejoró [8]: 121–2 se enteró de que la eliminación regular de nuevos coágulos mantenía la respiración de Lincoln. Después de darle respiración artificial a Lincoln, el Dr. Leale permitió que la actriz Laura Keene acunara la cabeza del presidente en su regazo y él declaró que la herida era mortal. [12]: 78

Leale, Taft y otro médico, Albert King, decidieron que Lincoln debía ser trasladado a la casa más cercana en la calle Décima porque un viaje en carruaje a la Casa Blanca era demasiado peligroso. Con cuidado, siete hombres recogieron a Lincoln y lo sacaron lentamente del teatro, donde estaba lleno de una multitud enojada. Después de considerar el Star Saloon de Peter Taltavull al lado, concluyeron que llevarían a Lincoln a una de las casas al otro lado del camino. Estaba lloviendo cuando los soldados llevaron a Lincoln a la calle, [59] donde un hombre los instó hacia la casa del sastre William Petersen. [60] En el dormitorio del primer piso de Petersen, el Lincoln excepcionalmente alto estaba colocado en diagonal sobre una cama pequeña. [8]: 123–4

Después de sacar a todos de la habitación, incluida la Sra. Lincoln, los médicos cortaron la ropa de Lincoln pero no descubrieron otras heridas al encontrar que Lincoln tenía frío, le aplicaron bolsas de agua caliente y tiritas de mostaza mientras cubrían su cuerpo frío con mantas. Más tarde, llegaron más médicos: el Cirujano General Joseph K. Barnes, Charles Henry Crane, Anderson Ruffin Abbott y Robert K. Stone (el médico personal de Lincoln). Todos estuvieron de acuerdo en que Lincoln no podría sobrevivir. Barnes probed the wound, locating the bullet and some bone fragments. Throughout the night, as the hemorrhage continued, they removed blood clots to relieve pressure on the brain, [62] and Leale held the comatose president's hand with a firm grip, "to let him know that he was in touch with humanity and had a friend." [8] : 14 [63]

Lincoln's older son Robert Todd Lincoln arrived at about 11 p.m., but twelve-year-old Tad Lincoln, who was watching a play of “Aladino” at Grover's Theater when he learned of his father's assassination at Ford's Theater, was kept away. Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles and Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton arrived. Stanton insisted that the sobbing Mary Lincoln leave the sick room, then for the rest of the night, he essentially ran the United States government from the house, including directing the hunt for Booth and the other conspirators. [8] : 127–8 Guards kept the public away, but numerous officials and physicians were admitted to pay their respects. [62]

Initially, Lincoln's features were calm and his breathing slow and steady. Later, one of his eyes became swollen, and the right side of his face discolored. [64] Maunsell Bradhurst Field wrote in a letter to Los New York Times that the President then started "breathing regularly, but with effort, and did not seem to be struggling or suffering." [65] [66] As he neared death, Lincoln's appearance became "perfectly natural" [65] (except for the discoloration around his eyes). [67] Shortly before 7 a.m. Mary was allowed to return to Lincoln's side, [68] and, as Dixon reported, "she again seated herself by the President, kissing him and calling him every endearing name." [69]

Lincoln died at 7:22 a.m. on April 15. [3] Mary Lincoln was not present. [70] [71] In his last moments, Lincoln's face became calm and his breathing quieter. [72] Field wrote there was "no apparent suffering, no convulsive action, no rattling of the throat . [only] a mere cessation of breathing". [65] [66] According to Lincoln's secretary John Hay, at the moment of Lincoln's death, "a look of unspeakable peace came upon his worn features". [73] The assembly knelt for a prayer, after which Stanton said either "Now he belongs to the ages" or "Now he belongs to the angels." [8] : 134 [74]

On Lincoln's death, Vice President Johnson became the 17th president, and was sworn in by Chief Justice Salmon Chase between 10 and 11 a.m. [75]

Booth had assigned Lewis Powell to kill Secretary of State William H. Seward. On the night of the assassination, Seward was at his home in Lafayette Park, confined to bed and recovering from injuries sustained April 5 from being thrown from his carriage. Herold guided Powell to Seward's house. Powell carried an 1858 Whitney revolver (a large, heavy, and popular gun during the Civil War) and a Bowie knife.

William Bell, Seward's maître d’, answered the door when Powell knocked 10:10 pm, as Booth made his way to the presidential box at Ford's Theater. Powell told Bell that he had medicine from Seward's physician and that his instructions were to personally show Seward how to take it. Overcoming Bell's skepticism, Powell made his way up the stairs to Seward's third-floor bedroom. [12] : 54 [13] : 736 [76] At the top of the staircase he was stopped by Seward's son, Assistant Secretary of State Frederick W. Seward, to whom he repeated the medicine story Frederick, suspicious, said his father was asleep.

Hearing voices, Seward's daughter Fanny emerged from Seward's room and said, "Fred, Father is awake now" – thus revealing to Powell where Seward was. Powell turned as if to start downstairs but suddenly turned again and drew his revolver. He aimed at Frederick's forehead and pulled the trigger, but the gun misfired, so he bludgeoned Frederick unconscious with it. Bell, yelling "Murder! Murder!", ran outside for help.

Fanny opened the door again, and Powell shoved past her to Seward's bed. He stabbed at Seward's face and neck, slicing open his cheek. [12] : 58 However, the splint (often mistakenly described as a neck brace) that doctors had fitted to Seward's broken jaw prevented the blade from penetrating his jugular vein. [13] : 737 He eventually recovered, though with serious scars on his face.

Seward's son Augustus and Sergeant George F. Robinson, a soldier assigned to Seward, were alerted by Fanny's screams and received stab wounds in struggling with Powell. As Augustus went for a pistol, Powell ran downstairs toward the door, [77] : 275 where he encountered Emerick Hansell, a State Department messenger. [78] [79] Powell stabbed Hansell in the back, then ran outside exclaiming "I'm mad! I'm mad!". Screams from the house had frightened Herold, who ran off, leaving Powell to find his own way in an unfamiliar city. [12] : 59

Booth had assigned George Atzerodt to kill Vice President Andrew Johnson, who was staying at the Kirkwood House in Washington. Atzerodt was to go to Johnson's room at 10:15 p.m. and shoot him. [13] : 735 On April 14, Atzerodt rented the room directly above Johnson's the next day, he arrived there at the appointed time and, carrying a gun and knife, went to the bar downstairs, where he asked the bartender about Johnson's character and behavior. He eventually became drunk and wandered off through the streets, tossing his knife away at some point. He made his way to the Pennsylvania House Hotel by 2 am, where he obtained a room and went to sleep. [8] : 166–7 [77] : 335

Earlier in the day, Booth had stopped by the Kirkwood House and left a note for Johnson: "I don't wish to disturb you. Are you at home? J. Wilkes Booth." [76] One theory holds that Booth was trying to find out whether Johnson was expected at the Kirkwood that night [8] : 111 another holds that Booth, concerned that Atzerodt would fail to kill Johnson, intended the note to implicate Johnson in the conspiracy. [80]

Lincoln was mourned in both the North and South, [77] : 350 and indeed around the world. [81] Numerous foreign governments issued proclamations and declared periods of mourning on April 15. [82] [83] Lincoln was praised in sermons on Easter Sunday, which fell on the day after his death. [77] : 357

On April 18, mourners lined up seven abreast for a mile to view Lincoln in his walnut casket in the White House's black-draped East Room. Special trains brought thousands from other cities, some of whom slept on the Capitol's lawn. [84] : 120–3 Hundreds of thousands watched the funeral procession on April 19, [12] : 213 and millions more lined the 1,700-mile (2,700 km) route of the train which took Lincoln's remains through New York to Springfield, Illinois, often passing trackside tributes in the form of bands, bonfires, and hymn-singing. [85] : 31–58 [41] : 231–8

Ulysses S. Grant called Lincoln "incontestably the greatest man I ever knew." [13] : 747 Robert E. Lee expressed sadness. [88] Southern-born Elizabeth Blair said that "Those of Southern born sympathies know now they have lost a friend willing and more powerful to protect and serve them than they can now ever hope to find again." [13] : 744 African-American orator Frederick Douglass called the assassination an "unspeakable calamity". [88]

British Foreign Secretary Lord Russell called Lincoln's death a "sad calamity." [83] China's chief secretary of state for foreign affairs, Prince Kung, described himself as "inexpressibly shocked and startled". [82] Ecuadorian President Gabriel Garcia Moreno said, "Never should I have thought that the noble country of Washington would be humiliated by such a black and horrible crime nor should I ever have thought that Mr. Lincoln would come to such a horrible end, after having served his country with such wisdom and glory under so critical circumstances." [82] [83] The government of Liberia issued a proclamation calling Lincoln "not only the ruler of his own people, but a father to millions of a race stricken and oppressed." [83] The government of Haiti condemned the assassination as a "horrid crime." [83]

Booth and Herold

Within half an hour of fleeing Ford's Theatre, Booth crossed the Navy Yard Bridge into Maryland. [12] : 67–8 An army sentry questioned him about his late-night travel Booth said that he was going home to the nearby town of Charles. Although it was forbidden for civilians to cross the bridge after 9 pm, the sentry let him through. [89] David Herold made it across the same bridge less than an hour later [12] : 81-2 and rendezvoused with Booth. [12] : 87 After retrieving weapons and supplies previously stored at Surattsville, Herold and Booth rode to the home of Samuel A. Mudd, a local doctor, who splinted the leg [12] : 131,153 Booth had broken in his escape, and later made a pair of crutches for Booth. [12] : 131,153

After a day at Mudd's house, Booth and Herold hired a local man to guide them to Samuel Cox's house. [12] : 163 Cox, in turn, took them to Thomas Jones, a Confederate sympathizer who hid Booth and Herold in Zekiah Swamp for five days until they could cross the Potomac River. [12] : 224 On the afternoon of April 24, they arrived at the farm of Richard H. Garrett, a tobacco farmer, in King George County, Virginia. Booth told Garrett he was a wounded Confederate soldier.

An April 15 letter to Navy Surgeon George Brainerd Todd from his brother tells of the rumors in Washington about Booth:

Today all the city is in mourning nearly every house being in black and I have not seen a smile, no business, and many a strong man I have seen in tears – Some reports say Booth is a prisoner, others that he has made his escape – but from orders received here, I believe he is taken, and during the night will be put on a Monitor for safe keeping – as a mob once raised now would know no end. [38]

The hunt for the conspirators quickly became the largest in U.S. history, involving thousands of federal troops and countless civilians. Edwin M. Stanton personally directed the operation, [90] authorizing rewards of $50,000 (equivalent to $800,000 in 2020) for Booth and $25,000 each for Herold and John Surratt. [91]

Booth and Herold were sleeping at Garrett's farm on April 26 when soldiers from the 16th New York Cavalry arrived and surrounded the barn, then threatened to set fire to it. Herold surrendered, but Booth cried out, "I will not be taken alive!" [12] : 326 The soldiers set fire to the barn [12] : 331 and Booth scrambled for the back door with a rifle and pistol.

Sergeant Boston Corbett crept up behind the barn and shot Booth in "the back of the head about an inch below the spot where his [Booth's] shot had entered the head of Mr. Lincoln", [92] severing his spinal cord. [12] : 335 Booth was carried out onto the steps of the barn. A soldier poured water into his mouth, which he spat out, unable to swallow. Booth told the soldier, "Tell my mother I die for my country." Unable to move his limbs, he asked a soldier to lift his hands before his face and whispered his last words as he gazed at them: "Useless . useless." He died on the porch of the Garrett farm two hours later. [12] : 336–40 [76] Corbett was initially arrested for disobeying orders but was later released and was largely considered a hero by the media and the public. [41] : 228

Otros

Without Herold to guide him, Powell did not find his way back to the Surratt house until April 17. He told detectives waiting there that he was a ditch-digger hired by Mary Surratt, but she denied knowing him. Both were arrested. [8] : 174–9 George Atzerodt hid at his cousin's farm in Germantown, Maryland, about 25 miles (40 km) northwest of Washington, where he was arrested April 20. [8] : 169

The remaining conspirators were arrested by month's end – except for John Surratt, who fled to Quebec where Roman Catholic priests hid him. In September, he boarded a ship to Liverpool, England, staying in the Catholic Church of the Holy Cross there. From there, he moved furtively through Europe until joining the Pontifical Zouaves in the Papal States. A friend from his school days recognized him there in early 1866 and alerted the U.S. government. Surratt was arrested by the Papal authorities but managed to escape under suspicious circumstances. He was finally captured by an agent of the United States in Egypt in November 1866. [93]

Scores of persons were arrested, including many tangential associates of the conspirators and anyone having had even the slightest contact with Booth or Herold during their flight. These included Louis J. Weichmann, a boarder in Mrs. Surratt's house Booth's brother Junius (in Cincinnati at the time of the assassination) theater owner John T. Ford James Pumphrey, from whom Booth hired his horse John M. Lloyd, the innkeeper who rented Mrs. Surratt's Maryland tavern and gave Booth and Herold weapons and supplies the night of April 14 and Samuel Cox and Thomas A. Jones, who helped Booth and Herold cross the Potomac. [84] : 186–8 All were eventually released except: [84] : 188

The accused were tried by a military tribunal ordered by Johnson, who had succeeded to the presidency on Lincoln's death:

    David Hunter (presiding)
  • Maj. Gen. Lew WallaceRobert Sanford Foster
  • Brev. Maj. Gen. Thomas Maley Harris
  • Brig. Gen. Albion P. Howe
  • Brig. Gen. August KautzJames A. Ekin
  • Col. Charles H. TompkinsDavid Ramsay Clendenin

The prosecution was led by U.S. Army Judge Advocate General Joseph Holt, assisted by Congressman John A. Bingham and Major Henry Lawrence Burnett. [94]

The use of a military tribunal provoked criticism from Edward Bates and Gideon Welles, who believed that a civil court should have presided, but Attorney General James Speed pointed to the military nature of the conspiracy and the facts that the defendants acted as enemy combatants and that martial law was in force at the time in the District of Columbia. (In 1866, in Ex parte Milligan, the United States Supreme Court banned the use of military tribunals in places where civil courts were operational.) [8] : 213–4 Only a simple majority of the jury was required for a guilty verdict and a two-thirds for a death sentence. There was no route for appeal other than to President Johnson. [8] : 222–3

The seven-week trial included the testimony of 366 witnesses. All of the defendants were found guilty on June 30. Mary Surratt, Lewis Powell, David Herold, and George Atzerodt were sentenced to death by hanging Samuel Mudd, Samuel Arnold, and Michael O'Laughlen were sentenced to life in prison. [95] Edmund Spangler was sentenced to six years. After sentencing Mary Surratt to hang, five jurors signed a letter recommending clemency, but Johnson refused to stop the execution he later claimed he never saw the letter. [8] : 227

Mary Surratt, Powell, Herold, and Atzerodt were hanged in the Old Arsenal Penitentiary on July 7. [12] : 362,365 Mary Surratt was the first woman executed by the United States government. [96] O'Laughlen died in prison in 1867. Mudd, Arnold, and Spangler were pardoned in February 1869 by Johnson. [12] : 367 Spangler, who died in 1875, always insisted his sole connection to the plot was that Booth asked him to hold his horse.

John Surratt stood trial in Washington in 1867. Four residents of Elmira, New York, [12] : 27 [97] : 125,132,136–7 [98] : 112–5 claimed they had seen him there between April 13 and 15 fifteen others said they either saw him or someone who resembled him, in Washington (or traveling to or from Washington) on the day of the assassination. The jury could not reach a verdict, and John Surratt was released. [8] : 178 [97] : 132–3,138 [99] : 227


Death of President Lincoln

On April 15, 1865, President Lincoln died less than 12 hours after being shot by John Wilkes Booth.

By early April 1865, the Civil War was drawing to a close. The Union Army had taken the Confederate Capitol at Richmond and Robert E. Lee had surrendered his troops at Appomattox Court House in Virginia.

US #122 is the only bi-color 1869 Pictorial to not produce an invert.

As hope for the war’s end grew nearer, President Lincoln was as cheerful as anyone had seen him in years. His widow later recalled how he “was almost boyish in his mirth… free from care, surrounded by those he loved so well and by whom he was idolized… I never saw him so supremely cheerful – his manner was even playful.”

In spite of his good mood, Lincoln had admitted to his close friends that he’d had a troubling nightmare two weeks before about what would be his last day. He’d dreamed that he was wandering the White House, following the sounds of sobs, only to discover his family and friends mourning his death.

US #137 is part of the Bank Note Series that replaced the then-unpopular Pictorials.

Despite the ominous dream, Lincoln remained positive and joyful, even attending a play with his wife on April 14. It was there, at Ford’s Theater, while watching Nuestro primo americano, that President Lincoln was given the unfortunate distinction of becoming the first assassinated US President. Reportedly, Lincoln’s bodyguard had left the theater during intermission to join friends for a drink, leaving the president unguarded when John Wilkes Booth arrived to shoot him.

US #222 is from 1890-93 Regular Issues, which were the last printed by the American Bank Note Company for 50 years.

A well-known actor, Booth entered the President’s box about 10:25 p.m. Knowing the play by heart, he waited for one of its most famous lines to be uttered, and used the audience’s laugh to muffle the sound of his gunshot. He’d shot President Lincoln in the back of the head. Booth was immediately pursued by one of Lincoln’s guests, Major Henry Rathbone. Booth leaped from the box and crossed the stage, which lead the audience to believe he was part of the play. He then shouted, “Sic semper tyrannis!” (Thus always to tyrants!) and “The South is avenged!” and escaped the theater.

US #304 – surrounding Lincoln are two figures holding an olive branch of peace.

Meanwhile, in the Presidential Box, three doctors who had been in the audience attended to Lincoln. They realized he could not be saved, but moved him across the street to the Petersen House, where he died at 7:22 on the morning of April 15. But the news of his assassination had already begun to spread across the country just moments after the shooting.

US #367 was part of a set of stamps issued for Lincoln’s 100th birthday.

Booth went on the run, traveling to Maryland to collect weapons. He remained in hiding at a tobacco farm for several days before Union soldiers discovered him. They surrounded the barn and warned that they would set it on fire unless Booth gave himself up. When he responded, “I will not be taken alive!” they set the barn on fire. Then, one of the men shot and paralyzed Booth. He was carried outside and told a solider “Tell my mother I die for my country.” Looking at his hands, Booth spoke his last words, “Useless…Useless” before dying two hours later.


This Day In History: 04/14/1865 - Lincoln is Shot - HISTORY

P resident Lincoln awoke the morning of April 14 in a pleasant mood. Robert E. Lee had surrendered several days before to Ulysses Grant, and now the President was awaiting word from North Carolina on the surrender of Joseph E. Johnston. The morning papers carried the announcement that the President and his wife would be attending the comedy, Nuestro primo americano, at Ford's Theater that evening with General Grant and his wife.

At 11 o'clock that morning, Lincoln held a meeting with Grant and the Cabinet. Following the conference, Grant gave his regrets that he and his wife could no longer attend the play that evening. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton pleaded with the President not to go out at night, fearful that some rebel might try to shoot him in the street. At lunch the President told his wife the news about the Grants. Disappointed, the Lincolns nonetheless decided to maintain their announced plans and asked Major Henry Rathbone and his fiancee, Clara Harris, to join them.


A contemporary illustration of
Lincoln's assassination.

After an afternoon carriage ride and dinner, Mary complained of a headache and considered not going after all. Lincoln commented that although he was feeling a bit tired, he needed a laugh and was intent on going with or without her. She relented. He made a quick trip to the War Department with his personal body guard, William Crook, but there was no news from North Carolina. On the way back to the White House, Crook implored the President not to go to the theater. Rebuffed, the body guard then asked that he be allowed to accompany the President as an extra guard. Lincoln also rejected the offer and shrugged off Crook's fears of assassination. Lincoln knew that a guard would be posted outside their private box at the theater.

Arriving after the play had started, the two couples swept up the stairs and into their seats. The box door was closed, but not locked. As the play progressed, police guard John Parker, a notorious drinker, left his post in the hallway leading to the box and went to a saloon next door for a drink. During the third act, the President and Mrs. Lincoln drew closer together, holding hands while enjoying the play. Behind them, the door opened. A shadowy figure stepped into the box, pointed a derringer at the back of Lincoln's head and pulled the trigger. Mary reached out to her slumping husband and began shrieking. Now wielding a dagger, the man yelled, "Sic semper tyrannus" ("Thus always to tyrants"), slashed Rathbone's arm open to the bone, and then leapt from the box. Catching his spur in a flag, he crashed to the stage, breaking his left shin in the fall. Rathbone and Harris both yelled for someone to stop him, but he escaped out the back stage door.

An unconscious Lincoln was carried to a bording house across the street and into the room of a War Department clerk. The bullet had entered behind the left ear and ripped a path through the left side of his brain, mortally wounding him. He died the next morning. Upon learning of his demise, Mary cried, "His dream was prophetic!"

"I heard the discharge of a pistol behind me"

Major Henry Rathbone, sat with the Lincolns in their theater box and later testified at the official inquiry into the assassination. We join his story as he and his fianc accompany the Lincolns to the theater. . .

"On the evening of the 14th of April last, at about twenty minutes past 8 o' clock, I, in company with Miss Harris, left my residence at the corner of Fifteenth and H Streets, and joined the President and Mrs. Lincoln, and went with them, in their carriage, to Ford's Theater, on Tenth Street. On reaching the theater, when the presence of the President became known, the actors stopped playing, the band struck up "Hail to the Chief," and the audience rose and received him with vociferous cheering. The party proceeded along in the rear of the dress-circle and entered the box that had been set apart for their reception. On entering the box, there was a large arm-chair that was placed nearest the audience, farthest from the stage, which the President took and occupied during the whole of the evening, with one exception, when he got up to put on his coat, and returned and sat down again.

When the second scene of the third act was being performed, and while I was intently observing the proceedings upon the stage, with my back toward the door, I heard the discharge of a pistol behind me, and, looking round, saw through the smoke a man between the door and the President. The distance from the door to where the President sat was about four feet. At the same time I heard the man shout some word, which I thought was 'Freedom!' I instantly sprang toward him and seized him. He wrested himself from my grasp, and made a violent thrust at my breast with a large knife. I parried the blow by striking it up, and received a wound several inches deep in my left arm . The man rushed to the front of the box, and I endeavored to seize him again, but only caught his clothes as he was leaping over the railing of the box. The clothes, as I believe, were torn in the attempt to hold him. As he went over upon the stage, I cried out, 'Stop that man.' I then turned to the President his position was not changed his head was slightly bent forward and his eyes were closed. I saw that he was unconscious, and, supposing him mortally wounded, rushed to the door for the purpose of calling medical aid.


The execution of the conspirators
in the assassination, July 7, 1865
Click photo to learn more.

On reaching the outer door of the passage way, I found it barred by a heavy piece of plank, one end of which was secured in the wall, and the other resting against the door. It had been so securely fastened that it required considerable force to remove it. This wedge or bar was about four feet from the floor. Persons upon the outside were beating against the door for the purpose of entering. I removed the bar, and the door was opened. Several persons, who represented themselves as surgeons, were allowed to enter. I saw there Colonel Crawford, and requested him to prevent other persons from entering the box.

I then returned to the box, and found the surgeons examining the President's person. They had not yet discovered the wound. As soon as it was discovered, it was determined to remove him from the theater. He was carried out, and I then proceeded to assist Mrs. Lincoln, who was intensely excited, to leave the theater. On reaching the head of the stairs, I requested Major Potter to aid me in assisting Mrs. Lincoln across the street to the house where the President was being conveyed. . .

In a review of the transactions, it is my confident belief that the time which elapsed between the discharge of the pistol and the time when the assassin leaped from the box did not exceed thirty seconds. Neither Mrs. Lincoln nor Miss Harris had left their seats."

Referencias:
This eyewitness account originally appeared in: Pitman, Benjamin The Assassination of President Lincoln and the Trial of the Conspirators (1865), reprinted in: Hofstadter, Richard and Michael Wallace eds. American Violence: A Documentary History (1970) Panati, Charles. Panati's Extraordinary Endings of Practically Everything and Everybody (1988). Oates, Stephen B. With Malice toward None: The Life of Abraham Lincoln (1977).


April 14th: Ruination Day. President Lincoln is fatally shot. (1865) The Titanic strikes an iceberg and begins to sink. (1912) One of the worst dust storms in American history strikes the Great Plains on what will later be called Black Sunday. (1935) [900X1276]

Also the day (2019) my e-file taxes were rejected because my ex-wife claimed our son when it was my year to claim our son.

Right up there with those other 3 events.

FIle the paper return. You'll both get audited and the court documents should clear it up.

The April 14th Tushka, OK tornado too. Video

Besides Notre Dame burning, you can add in Reggie Fils-Aimé retiring as President of Nintendo of America.

“On the 14th day of April, in 1935.

Clearly, you're a harbinger of doom

Hillsborough Disaster too in the UK.

My uncle was born on the 14th: the day Lincoln got shot and the Titanic hit the iceberg. I was born on the 15th: the day Lincoln died and the Titanic sunk

Now the day the Notre Dame burned too.

My wedding day. Divorced 14 years later.

Got married last year on the 14th. ¡Ay!

I did a #2 in a canes restroom today and failed to realize there was no toilet paper. Truly the ruination day

Thank god this was yesterday

Gillian Welch coined the term “Ruination Day” on her album, Time (The Revelator). Here’s a bit about that.

Day before my birthday. So many happy events cuz the Titanic sank early on April 15, as well as Lincoln dying. Didn’t know about the dust bowl. Pretty sure there’s others just can’t think m right now. Too early.


ExecutedToday.com

On this date in 1865, Abraham Lincoln had a date for Ford’s Theater — and with John Wilkes Booth’s single-shot Derringer pistol.

But Honest Abe had one last order of business to attend to before his carriage called him away to destiny: the pardon of a convicted Confederate spy due to be shot in St. Louis two days hence. Lincoln’s handwritten clemency for George Vaughn was the last official act of his presidency.

Lincoln in Story (“The Life of the Martyr-President told in Authenticated Anecdotes,” a light 1901 volume for popular consumption) relates:

Before the war Vaughn, with his wife and children, lived in Canton, Mo. He was a friend of Martin E. Green, a brother of United States Senator James S. Green, both strong pro-slavery men. At the opening of the war Martin E. Green recruited a regiment and received a colonel’s commission from the Confederate Government. George Vaughn enlisted under Green’s command and fought through the war.

After a period of fighting, Green and Vaughn crossed into Mississippi from Tennessee, camping at Tupelo, Miss. Not having heard from his family, Green was anxious to hear from his old home, so he delegated Vaughn to go on the mission of delivering letters to his wife.

Vaughn had almost completed his trip, having reached La Grange, six miles south of Canton, when he was captured by a squad of Federal troops.

They searched his person, and, finding letters and papers concealed about him, he was tried as a spy and sentenced to be shot. John B. Henderson, Senator from Missouri, finally succeeded in getting an order from the President for a retrial, but the verdict remained as hitherto. Again Henderson appealed to Lincoln, who granted a third trial, with the same result.

Henderson was not disconcerted, and again went to Lincoln. It was on the afternoon of April 14, 1865 — a melancholy date — that the Senator called at the White House. He called the attention of Lincoln to the fact that the war was practically closed, and said: “Mr. Lincoln, this pardon should be granted in the interest of peace and conciliation.”

This story gravitates naturally to the clemency of “the Great Heart” (as, for instance, D.W. Griffith called Lincoln). Far be it from us to say otherwise, but this is also self-evidently a story of the unusual prerogatives of the well-connected: not just any accused spy could get two trial do-overs and then a pardon free and clear ordered straight from the White House.

Mr. Lincoln replied: “Senator, I agree with you. Go to Stanton and tell him this man must be released.”

Henderson went to the office of the Secretary of War. Stanton* became violently angry, and swore that he would permit no such procedure.

Vaughn had but two days to live, and Henderson hastened to make one more stand. After supper he went to the White House. The President was in his office, dressed to go to Ford’s Theatre, when the Senator entered and told of the meeting he had had with Stanton.

Lincoln turned to his desk and wrote a few lines on an official sheet of paper. As he handed it to Senator Henderson he remarked: “I think that will have precedence over Stanton.”

It was an order for an unconditional release and pardon — the last official paper ever signed by Abraham Lincoln.

Lincoln was dead within hours. Vaughn passed away in 1899 in Maryville, Mo.

* Stanton is supposed to have delivered the remark as Lincoln’s deathbed, “now he belongs to the ages” … an alleged epitaph whose actual content is subject, like all biography, to textual uncertainty and ideological redefinition.

Actualizar: The excellent tale of a different soldier pardoned on this same date has recently been debunked by the National Archives in an academic scandal: in January 2011, researcher Thomas Lowry confessed to altering the pardon order for one Patrick Murphy from the true (and much less dramatic) date of April 14, 1864 to April 14, 1865.

Vaughn was actually pardoned just before Lincoln went to Ford’s Theater Murphy (totally unconnected to Vaughn) was pardoned 365 days prior.


How Accurate Is Lincoln?

Left: Abraham Lincoln courtesy Library of Congress. Right: Daniel Day-Lewis in Lincoln © 2012 - DreamWorks II Distribution Co., LLC. All Rights Reserved.

Steven Spielberg’s new historical drama Lincoln, written by Tony Kushner and based in part on Doris Kearns Goodwin’s Equipo de rivales, depicts the crucial final weeks of Abraham Lincoln’s life, when he helped push the 13 th Amendment through Congress and bring an end to the Civil War.

How honest is this portrait of Honest Abe? Below is a handy guide to help you sort the fact from the fiction. There are some spoilers ahead, so if you’d like to go into the movie not knowing what Mrs. Lincoln thought of Nuestro primo americano, come back after you’ve seen the movie.

Lincoln’s dream

Lincoln often spoke of a mysterious recurring dream about a ship, just as in the movie. However, Lincoln usually interpreted the dream as being not about the 13 th amendment, but instead as being an omen of military victory. Lincoln’s secretary of the navy, Gideon Welles, wrote about one time that Lincoln told him about his dream, while they were awaiting an update from General William Tecumseh Sherman:

According to White House guard William Henry Crook, Lincoln also spoke of having the dream the night before he was assassinated.

Lincoln’s stories

Just as in Lincoln, Uncle Abe was renowned for his love of storytelling, and his talent for it. Here’s one description from Equipo de rivales:

One of the most memorable anecdotes delivered by Lincoln in the film is the story of Ethan Allen’s visit to England. Whether the content of Lincoln’s story is true or not, it was, according to Equipo de rivales, one of his favorites:

Another story Lincoln recounts is the tale of 70-year-old Illinois woman Melissa Goings, who allegedly murdered her husband. Lincoln suggests he aided in Goings’ escape from the law. This story, too, is taken almost verbatim from historical accounts:

As for his speeches, he really did—at least at some points in his career—keep scraps of paper in his hat.

Lincoln’s voice

Lincoln’s surprisingly high-pitched voice and accent sound “uncanny, convincing, and historically right” according to Lincoln historian Harold Holzer. (More: Does Daniel Day-Lewis Sound Like Lincoln?)

Mary Todd Lincoln

Toward the end of Lincoln, Mary Todd Lincoln (Sally Field) predicts that “All everyone will remember of me was that I was crazy and that I ruined your happiness.” This is partially true, though in recent years some have disputed the idea that the First Lady really suffered from mental illness. Today many historians believe that she was a whip-smart, politically savvy woman. (More: Was Mary Todd Lincoln Really Insane?)

Lincoln’s sexuality

There is little evidence that Lincoln was gay. The movie, perhaps accordingly, offers little more than a suggestion. (More: How Gay Is Lincoln?)

Beards and appearances

Lincoln’s casting, makeup, and costume departments achieved strong resemblances between the actors in the film and the historical figures they represented. We’ve assembled a gallery where you can compare the actors and the historical figures side-by-side.

Lincoln’s pardons

The pardons Old Abe signs in Lincoln are based on the real pardons that he gave many deserters, preferring that they “fight instead of being shot.” For an extraordinary example of one such pardon, head to “Abraham Lincoln Scrawled This Astonishing Note to Save a Union Soldier’s Life.”

The peace talks

Como en Lincoln, the vote on the 13 th Amendment took place just as Confederate representatives were headed north for peace negotiations. When word of these peace commissioners got out, there was a motion to delay the vote until after negotiations, which could have put the vote in jeopardy. However, Lincoln was able to defuse this rumor by using carefully worded language, just as in the movie. El escribio:

This was technically true—the commissioners were on their way to Fortress Monroe, not Washington—and also a bit disingenuous. Lincoln met with the commissioners at Fortress Monroe a few days later.

Lincoln was able to pass the 13 th Amendment due in large part to the work of three men who twisted arms on his (and Secretary of State William Seward’s) behalf. While it’s not well documented how these men procured the necessary votes and abstentions of lame duck Democrats, it does seem possible that they could have promised patronage positions in return, as they do in the film.

On the day of the vote, the proceedings played out much as they do in the movie, but Spielberg does take a few dramatic liberties. While free blacks were allowed in the galleries and some number of them (including one of Frederick Douglass’ sons) did come out for the vote, historians don’t think that they came out in quite the extraordinary force that they seem to in the movie. There may, however, have been an unusual number of women, who had been instrumental in the abolitionist movement.

The vote itself plays out much as it would have in real life. George Yeaman (Michael Stuhlbarg) of Kentucky, a slave state, really did change his position on the amendment in order to vote yes. And at the end of the vote, the speaker, Schuyler Colfax, really did break tradition in order to cast a vote. However, it’s very unlikely that Thaddeus Stevens was able to sneak the document home for the night once it was over.

The politicians involved in the vote would most likely not have called it “the 13 th Amendment.” They would have called it, for example, “the Constitutional amendment,” or “the Constitutional amendment abolishing slavery.”

Thaddeus Stevens

Thaddeus Stevens’ support for black suffrage, which provides one of Lincoln’s central conflicts, really was one of his most radical and controversial stances. In 1865, the Republican Congressman argued that “Without the right of suffrage in the late slave States (I do not speak of the free States,) I believe the slaves had far better been left in bondage.” However, in the deliberations before the amendment was passed, he was forced to reassure wavering Democrats that the amendment would not guarantee the equality of black people, in order to pass the amendment. He told them it pertained only to equality before the law.*

One of the other standout features of Tommy Lee Jones’ Thaddeus Stevens is his virtuosic talent for putdowns. While many of these seem to be inventions of screenwriter Tony Kushner’s, his razor-sharp tongue was inspired by history: For example, he once attacked Masons as a “feeble band of lowly reptiles”—an insult similar to one Stevens uses in the film to describe his rival Democrats.

Perhaps the film’s biggest surprise comes when Stevens gets in bed with his mulatto housekeeper (S. Epatha Merkerson) and apparent lover. Some have speculated that Stevens’ housekeeper, Lydia Hamilton Smith, really was his mistress. Stevens was accused of this by his anti-abolitionist critics, though there’s no concrete evidence it was true.


This Day In History: President Abraham Lincoln Was Shot

This day in history, April 14, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln was shot in the head at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C. by actor and Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth. The assassination came just five days after Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his army at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, bringing about an end to the American Civil War.

Booth, a Maryland native born in 1838, remained in the North during the war despite his Confederate sympathies. He initially plotted to abduct President Lincoln and take him to Richmond, the Confederate capital. However, on March 20, 1865, the day of the planned kidnapping, the president failed to appear at the spot where Booth and his six fellow conspirators waited. Two weeks later, Richmond fell to Union forces.

The conspirators decided to kill Lincoln, Vice President Andrew Johnson, and Secretary of State William Seward on the same evening.

On the evening of April 14, conspirator Lewis T. Powell burst into Secretary of State Seward’s home, seriously wounding him and three others, while George A. Atzerodt, assigned to Vice President Johnson, lost his nerve and fled.

At about 10 p.m. Booth walked into the theater and up to the president’s box. Lincoln’s guard, John Parker, was not there because he had gotten bored with the play, Our American Cousin, and left his post to get a beer. Booth went unnoticed and shot a single bullet into the back of the head of Lincoln.

The president’s friend, Major Rathbone, attempted to grab Booth but was slashed by Booth’s knife. Booth leapt to the stage and shouted “Sic semper tyrannis! [Thus always to tyrants]–the South is avenged!” He broke his leg in the process but managed to escape on horseback.

The president was carried to a lodging house opposite Ford’s Theater but at 7:22 a.m. the next morning was pronounced dead.

Booth rode to Virginia with David Herold and stopped at the home of Dr. Samuel Mudd, who placed splints on Booth’s legs. They hid in a barn on Richard Garrett’s farm as thousands of Union troops combed the area looking for them. When the troops finally caught up with Booth and Herold on April 26, they gave them the option of surrendering before the barn was burned down. Herold decided to surrender, but Booth remained in the barn as it went up in flames. Corporal Boston Corbett shot and killed Booth.

The other conspirators were captured, except for John Surratt, who fled to Canada. In the end, four conspirators were hanged and four were jailed.


Ver el vídeo: Lincoln, la historia detrás del magnicidio (Julio 2022).


Comentarios:

  1. Akeno

    No. Nada de esto es cierto. No estoy hablando de la conversación, finalmente estoy hablando. Todos los argumentos son Gamno.

  2. Alvy

    Olvidé recordarte.

  3. Negami

    Absolutamente de acuerdo contigo. En él, algo es y es una buena idea. Te apoyo.



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