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Armadura de placas usada por hombres de armas que luchan a pie 1380-1415

Armadura de placas usada por hombres de armas que luchan a pie 1380-1415

Estoy interesado en la cantidad de placa y qué elementos de placa exactamente han sido usados ​​por hombres de armas / soldados a principios del siglo XIV en diferentes partes de Europa.

He establecido que un hombre típico de armas usaba algún tipo de casco, generalmente un sombrero de marmita, y una forma de guanteletes de reloj de arena, generalmente con una cota de malla simplificada / sin protección para los dedos.

¿Había otros elementos del plato que llevaban los hombres de armas? Estoy especialmente interesado en cualquier evidencia del uso de cascos cerrados o algún tipo de protección para la cara / garganta que usan. ¿Qué tal la protección de las articulaciones?

Cualquier hallazgo sería bienvenido, lo mismo para la iconografía, solo que en ese caso pediría el contexto y la datación precisa del icono. A veces, la iconografía mostraba a personas con una armadura extraña, llamada "armadura falsa", para ridiculizar a la persona representada.


Armor Essentials

Los elementos esenciales de la transición del arnés de malla del siglo XII a la armadura de placas completamente desarrollada del hombre de armas del siglo XV se pueden resumir de la siguiente manera:

Articulaciones: Las defensas de placas de hierro o cuero endurecido para los codos, las rodillas y las espinillas aparecieron por primera vez a mediados del siglo XIII, y durante los siguientes ciento cincuenta años la protección de brazos y manos, piernas y pies se hizo cada vez más completa.

Torso: Desde mediados hasta finales del siglo XIII, el torso de un hombre de armas bien equipado estaría protegido por una sobreveste de tela o cuero forrado con placas de metal, una capa de placas, que a mediados y finales del siglo XIV se ser complementado, o totalmente reemplazado, por un pectoral sólido. Debajo, se seguía usando una cota de malla, mientras que todavía era habitual llevar una armadura de abrigo en el exterior, aunque había mucha variación local en esto. En Inglaterra, por ejemplo, la sobrevesta fue reemplazada por el jupon corto y ceñido.

Cabeza: A principios y mediados del siglo XIV, el bascinet con visera y el aventador de malla adjunto para proteger el cuello reemplazó al gran yelmo y la cofia de punta redonda con fines prácticos de campaña. Viseras venían en una variedad de formas. El más simple, común en Alemania e Italia, consistía en una nasal que cuando no estaba enganchada a la frente del bascinet colgaba del avental a la altura de la barbilla. A menudo, de hecho, los hombres luchaban en bascinets sin ningún tipo de visera.

Armamento y blindaje: Con el desarrollo de una armadura de placas completamente articulada, el escudo ahora se volvió en gran parte redundante. La aparición de la armadura de placas también provocó un cambio en el armamento principal del hombre de armas. La espada con una hoja plana, que proporcionaba un filo eficaz contra la cota de malla, fue reemplazada gradualmente durante el siglo XIV por una con una hoja más rígida que se estrechaba hacia una punta aguda, a menudo reforzada, diseñada para una acción de empuje contra una armadura de placas.

El bronce conmemorativo de Sir Hugh Hastings (muerto en 1347) en la iglesia de Elsing, Norfolk. Con figuras flanqueantes que representan a algunos de los compañeros de armas de Hastings, este es un conjunto de armadura corporal intrigantemente variado de mediados del siglo XIV. Tenga en cuenta los bascinets con visera, los jupons con faldón, un sombrero de caldera de forma curiosa (abajo a la derecha), un hacha (abajo a la izquierda) y la figura montada de San Jorge sobre la cabeza de Hastings.

Papel de hombres de armas

A finales del siglo XIV, cuando se pintó esta iluminación, los hombres de armas normalmente luchaban a pie, en lugar de a caballo. Los artistas contemporáneos, sin embargo, continuaron representando escenas de batalla como dramáticos enfrentamientos de caballeros montados.

Debido a que el combate que se muestra aquí tuvo lugar en un puente, el artista nos dio una rara visión de cómo los hombres de armas del siglo XIV desplegaban y manejaban sus armas cuando luchaban como infantería pesada. Como es habitual en las batallas de infantería medieval, los defensores (izquierda), capaces de mantener un mejor orden, finalmente ganaron la pelea.

Adquirir armadura

A menos que lo proporcione un señor o patrón, o posiblemente en cumplimiento de las obligaciones militares de una comunidad local, el equipo de un aspirante a hombre de armas sería su propia responsabilidad. Aunque las armaduras de placas producidas en masa de la última Edad Media pueden haber sido relativamente menos costosas que las cota de malla de los siglos anteriores, el equipamiento para la guerra desde cero siguió siendo un negocio costoso.

En consecuencia, la calidad de las armas y la armadura de un hombre habría ofrecido una clara indicación de su lugar en la jerarquía social de la élite militar. Gran parte de la evidencia sobreviviente muestra el arnés actualizado de nobles bien equipados; pero, en realidad, la guerra en la Europa del siglo XIV involucró a una multitud heterogénea de nobles sin perspectivas y caballeros a sueldo, muchos de los cuales habrían luchado con armaduras de calidad desigual.


Fuentes y lecturas sugeridas:

Guerra en el mundo medieval por Carey, Allfree y Cairns

Guerra medieval: una historia por Maurice Keen

Batalla en el puente sobre el Sena Imágenes de la Biblioteca Británica en línea


Los hombres en armas variaban mucho en riqueza y estatus. Mi conocimiento se basa en Inglaterra y el área de la guerra de los cien años, pero deberías encontrar muchas similitudes universales. A principios de la década de 1300, alrededor del 20-30% eran caballeros, aunque a principios de la década de 1400 esto se redujo a alrededor del 10%. Los caballeros recibían 2 chelines diarios como paga, mientras que los hombres comunes en armas recibían la mitad. Puede sumar eso y compararlo con los precios de varios tipos de armaduras. En general, estaban destinados a servir como caballería blindada o infantería pesada y, por lo tanto, estaban equipados al menos de la misma manera que los caballeros, con diferentes niveles de calidad. Por supuesto, primero debes tener en cuenta que no había uniforme en esos días, y eligieron el equipo en función de sus preferencias personales y lo que podían pagar. Otro factor fue el saqueo en el campo de batalla, que ciertamente fue un beneficio utilizado por todas las clases para mejorar su equipo. Por lo tanto, hubo mucha mezcla con piezas de chapa, correo y bergantín. Una cosa más segura es lo que realmente se les exigió como hombres de armas. Eran caballería pesada como base y tenían que tener un caballo de guerra que valiera aproximadamente 10 libras. Este podría ser un corcel (preferiblemente) o un corcel. Se necesitaban lanzas para cargar como una unidad. Así que al menos tenían que mantenerse al día con los caballeros. Para pintarte una imagen del hombre promedio en brazos, imagina una cota de malla con placa en las articulaciones (hombros, codos, rodillas) placa de tres cuartos en las piernas o tablillas o calzas, cualquier casco, aunque si se lo compró él mismo, probablemente un modelo más antiguo. Una lanza pesada y una espada, maza o hacha eran sus armas. Entonces podría verse como un caballero más pobre, pero con potencial para ser más rico. La guerra podía ser muy rentable, y especialmente en este momento, incluso los soldados campesinos como los arqueros se enriquecieron.


Batalla de Agincourt

los Batalla de Agincourt (/ ˈ æ ʒ ɪ n k ɔːr (t), - k ʊər / [a] Francés: Azincourt [azɛ̃kuʁ]) fue una victoria inglesa en la Guerra de los Cien Años. Tuvo lugar el 25 de octubre de 1415 (día de San Crispín) cerca de Azincourt, en el norte de Francia. [b] La inesperada victoria inglesa contra el ejército francés, numéricamente superior, elevó la moral y el prestigio ingleses, paralizó a Francia e inició un nuevo período de dominio inglés en la guerra.

Después de varias décadas de relativa paz, los ingleses habían reanudado la guerra en 1415 en medio del fracaso de las negociaciones con los franceses. En la campaña que siguió, muchos soldados murieron por enfermedades, y el número de ingleses disminuyó. Intentaron retirarse a Calais, controlada por los ingleses, pero encontraron su camino bloqueado por un ejército francés considerablemente mayor. A pesar de la desventaja numérica, la batalla terminó con una abrumadora victoria para los ingleses.

El rey Enrique V de Inglaterra llevó a sus tropas a la batalla y participó en combates cuerpo a cuerpo. El rey Carlos VI de Francia no comandaba el ejército francés porque padecía enfermedades psicóticas e incapacidad mental asociada. Los franceses estaban comandados por el alguacil Charles d'Albret y varios nobles franceses prominentes del partido Armagnac. Esta batalla es notable por el uso del arco largo inglés en un gran número, y los arqueros ingleses y galeses comprenden casi el 80 por ciento del ejército de Henry.

Agincourt es una de las victorias más celebradas de Inglaterra y fue uno de los triunfos ingleses más importantes en la Guerra de los Cien Años, junto con la Batalla de Crécy (1346) y la Batalla de Poitiers (1356). Forma la pieza central de la obra de William Shakespeare. Enrique V, escrito en 1599.


Desafío a las armas

Los grandes torneos eran eventos costosos. No todo el mundo podía permitirse participar, y mucho menos organizar una. Por lo tanto, los caballeros ordinarios encontraron una manera de organizar sus propios pequeños torneos, llamados desafíos a las armas.

Imitando los pasos de armas de sus adinerados superiores, estos caballeros desafiarían a otros para que los encontraran de una manera particular para el combate organizado. Por ejemplo, en 1390 cuatro caballeros se incorporaron a las listas de St Inglevert en Francia, declarando que se enfrentarían a todos los retadores.

Challenge at Arms en el castillo de Warwick (colección de autores)

Estos concursos eran a veces una adición caballeresca al complicado negocio de la guerra. En 1398, siete caballeros franceses desafiaron a los caballeros de Inglaterra, con quienes luchaban entonces en la Guerra de los Cien Años. Llevarían un símbolo de diamante en su armadura durante tres años, tiempo durante el cual los caballeros ingleses eran bienvenidos para desafiarlos al combate uno a uno. Esto comenzaría con la lanza, al igual que una justa organizada, luego sería seguido por espada, hacha y daga. Se especificaron las apuestas por lo que ganaría el vencedor del perdedor.


Glosario y términos de armaduras medievales

Armet & # 8211 un casco ajustado y con visera que parece haberse originado en Italia en algún momento antes de 1450 y se mantuvo en uso durante los siglos XV y XVI. El brazo era más ligero y más protector que el bascinet que superó y utilizó una nueva innovación de carrilleras con bisagras. De esta forma, el casco podría cerrarse alrededor de la cabeza, y el peso podría ser recogido por la gorguera y los hombros. El armet fue reemplazado por el casco cerrado, a su vez.

Gorra de armado & # 8211 una gorra acolchada debajo del casco.

Arnis & # 8211 Italiano para & # 8220harness & # 8221, el término histórico para ser & # 8220in armadura & # 8221.

Barbute & # 8211 otro diseño de casco italiano de mediados del siglo XV, el barbute o barbuta era un casco ajustado que se presentaba en una variedad de formas abiertas y cerradas. Es el diseño más famoso, tenía una ranura en forma de "Y" o "T" en la cara para proporcionar visión y ventilación, y estaba claramente inspirado en los cascos griegos clásicos antiguos.

Bascinet & # 8211 un casco en forma de cuenca, que evolucionó a partir de la pequeña gorra de acero que se usa debajo del gran yelmo. El bascinet tenía inicialmente la cara abierta, pero como suplantó al yelmo como defensa principal, se desarrollaron una variedad de viseras con bisagras. Los bascinets estuvieron en uso desde mediados del siglo XIV hasta mediados del siglo XV, y los soldados de infantería todavía los usaban ocasionalmente hasta principios del siglo XVI.

Besagew & # 8211 un rodete grande y deslizante, que protege una articulación, como la parte interior del codo o la axila.

Bevor & # 8211 también llamado baviere o beavor. El bevor era una pieza de armadura del siglo XV que protegía la parte inferior del rostro cuando se usaba con un sallet. Se podía fijar al casco de la placa respiratoria y, a menudo, tenía bisagras para poder bajarlo cuando no se usaba.

Patrón & # 8211 La placa de metal redonda o en forma de cono en el centro de un escudo, protegiendo la mano. También se llama umbo.

Respiraciones & # 8211 Agujeros en la visera o placa frontal de un casco para proporcionar ventilación.

Bergantín
& # 8211 Un tipo de capa de placas (ver más abajo) con cientos de placas pequeñas superpuestas, que brindan una gran movilidad a un pequeño costo de protección. Popular en los siglos XV y XVI, el bergantín generalmente se usaba sobre el acolchado, pero no sobre la cota de malla.

Escudo & # 8211 Un pequeño escudo redondo (9 & # 8211 18 & # 8243 de diámetro) agarrado en la mano con un solo mango o dos enarmes. El nombre buckler es una corrupción de la palabra en francés antiguo bocler que significa jefe, que se refiere al jefe o umbo en el centro del escudo. Se ha convertido en una cuestión de conveniencia clasificar el escudo como un escudo de mano pequeño y ágil. La definición es conveniente de usar, pero el lector debe ser consciente de que los antiguos no eran tan pedantes acerca de tales definiciones y usaban el término con indiferencia. Utilizados desde la época medieval, los escudos eran redondos o incluso cuadrados, de aprox. 8-20 & # 8243 y hechos de metal, madera o madera con adornos de metal. Por lo general, se sostenía con un puño y se usaba para desviar o golpear golpes y estocadas. El borde también podría usarse para golpear y bloquear. Algunos tenían púas largas de metal en la parte delantera para atacar, o barras y ganchos colocados en la parte delantera para atrapar la punta del estoque de un oponente. Italiano & # 8220rondash & # 8221 o & # 8220bochiero. & # 8221

Abrigo de ante & # 8211 una gruesa capa de cuero de ante, usaba una armadura de piquero y artillero en el Renacimiento, solo o debajo de una coraza. Los abrigos de ante también se usaban a menudo como protección ligera cuando se batía en duelo con estoques o espadas.

Burgonet & # 8211 un casco abierto con escudo y mejillas, usado a finales del siglo XVI y principios del XVII.

Byrnie & # 8211 una cota de malla, hasta la mitad del muslo, con mangas hasta los codos. Esta fue la principal defensa del cuerpo para los guerreros ricos desde finales de la Antigüedad hasta principios del siglo XI.

Camail & # 8211 una cortina de malla, que cuelga de la parte inferior del casco, como defensa para la barbilla, el cuello, la garganta y los hombros.

Cap-a-pie & # 8211 una antigua expresión francesa, que significa estar armado de pies a cabeza.

Chausses & # 8211 polainas. En el caso de las armaduras, mallas de malla, atadas al cinturón con correas de cuero, y por lo general se usan sobre calzas acolchadas.

Casco cerrado & # 8211 una forma de casco completo y ajustado, de los siglos XVI y XVII. El timón cerrado claramente derivó del armet, al que suplantó.

Escudo-armadura & # 8211 Una prenda de vestir de finales de la Edad Media, particularmente popular en los torneos, que mostraba la heráldica del portador o la de su señor.

Escudo de placas & # 8211 Placas de acero, hueso o cuero endurecido remachadas o cosidas dentro de una cubierta de cuero o tela pesada, para proporcionar una forma flexible de armadura de placas. A finales de los siglos XIII y XIV, el escudo de placas se habría usado sobre una cota de malla.

Coña
& # 8211 una capucha de tela o cota de malla, que se lleva debajo del casco.

Couter
& # 8211 armadura de placa que protege el codo. A menudo equipado con un besagew.

Coraza & # 8211 una armadura completa de placas, compuesta por una coraza, una placa posterior y, a veces, borlas.

Cuirbouilli & # 8211 cuero, endurecido hirviendo en agua, utilizado como material para armaduras, particularmente en los siglos XIII y XIV.

Cuisse & # 8211 armadura para los muslos. Los primeros cortes eran simplemente prendas acolchadas, como un aketon, pero el término también se aplicó más tarde a las defensas de placas.

Enarmes & # 8211 correas de cuero utilizadas para sujetar un escudo o broquel.

Gambeson & # 8211 a veces se usa para referirse al aketon, el gambeson más comúnmente en el período referido a una armadura de abrigo acolchada y decorada de finales del siglo XIV, que se usa sobre el peto o solo.

Gardebras & # 8211 un arnés de brazo completo, compuesto por el couter, vambrace y rebrace.

Guantelete & # 8211 un guante blindado, a menudo formado por una sola placa para el dorso de la mano y placas superpuestas más pequeñas para los dedos, lo que les permite moverse con facilidad.

Gorguera & # 8211 una placa de defensa ajustada para el cuello, la garganta y la parte superior del pecho.

Gran timón
& # 8211 el primer casco en la Edad Media que abarcó toda la cabeza, generalmente hecho de cuatro o cinco placas de hierro remachadas juntas, y usado sobre una cofia de malla y, a veces, una pequeña gorra de acero. Los grandes yelmos aparecieron por primera vez en la última década del siglo XII y se generalizaron en el siglo XIII y principios del XIV. Siguieron siendo la forma dominante de casco de torneo en el Renacimiento, volviéndose progresivamente más pesados ​​y masivos. Después de 1420, los yelmos bajaron hasta los hombros y se atornillaron al pecho y la espalda.

Chicharrón & # 8211 armadura para la espinilla y la pantorrilla.

Guige & # 8211 La correa que cuelga un escudo de los hombros o el cuello

Aprovechar
& # 8211 el término medieval común para armadura.

Haubergeon & # 8211 un hauberk con las faldas largas quitadas, de modo que terminara entre la entrepierna y la mitad del muslo, generalmente con un dobladillo dagged. La cota de malla se usó de esta forma en los siglos XIV y XV, generalmente bajo alguna forma de defensa de placas.

Cota de malla & # 8211 una cota de malla larga, hasta la rodilla o más, inicialmente con medias mangas, que en el siglo XII se había extendido hasta la muñeca. Más tarde, la manga de la cota se hizo aún más ajustada y terminó en mitones de malla llamados silenciadores. Aunque existe una clara distinción entre el hauberk y el haubergeon, como se señaló anteriormente, en los primeros escritos los dos términos se usaban de manera intercambiable. La cota de malla fue la principal armadura corporal de los siglos XI y XIII.

Jacobo & # 8211 un abrigo defensivo barato de tela o cuero, con pequeñas placas intercaladas y cosidas entre sus capas.

Jupon
& # 8211 una sobrevesta corta y ajustada, usada sobre una armadura en los siglos XIV y principios del XV. Hecha de varios grosores de tela, la otra capa era a menudo de terciopelo o seda, con los brazos del propietario bordados o aplicados.

Sombrero hervidor & # 8211 un simple sombrero de hierro con ala ancha, casi idéntico a los cascos de defensa civil del siglo XX, o los de los "doughboys" ingleses de la Primera Guerra Mundial. El sombrero de la caldera fue una defensa común desde los siglos XII al XV.

Laminado & # 8211 se cree que se originó en Asia, una forma semirrígida de armadura que consta de placas de metal cortas perforadas, superpuestas y entrelazadas. La laminilla se utilizó desde la antigüedad hasta el siglo XX, pero fuera de Europa del Este (y en menor medida, Escandinavia y Sicilia) fue conocida, pero nunca popular, en Occidente.

Correo & # 8211 un tipo de armadura formada por anillos perforados de una hoja de metal o remachados individualmente. Una cota de malla puede tener más de 20 000 anillos. La malla era flexible y, cuando se abrochaba correctamente, resultaba razonablemente cómoda, pero no ofrecía protección suficiente contra los golpes o la fuerza de conmoción, a menos que se llevara con un acolchado pesado debajo. A mediados del siglo XIII, se agregaron las primeras defensas de placas adicionales en la espinilla, los codos y el kness, pero antes de la Guerra de los Cien Años (c.1338 & # 8211 1453) el caballero todavía estaba esencialmente blindado con cota de malla. A fines del siglo XIV, el correo era la principal defensa del cuerpo solo para los caballeros pobres y los soldados comunes, pero continuó usándose como faldas y protección para las axilas y áreas que las placas no podían proteger durante todo el período. Tenga en cuenta que el término cota de malla es un "invento" victoriano incorrecto.

Morion & # 8211 una forma tardía de casco (c. 1570 & # 8211 1650) con un ala muy curvada y un alto "peine" en la parte superior. Asociado en la imaginación popular con los conquistadores españoles, el estilo se desarrolló realmente después de las conquistas iniciales de España en las Américas.

Par de platos & # 8211 una defensa del cuerpo, con placas más grandes que una capa de placas estándar, pero aún sin una coraza sólida.

Espaldera & # 8211 armadura de placas para los hombros, compuesta de varias placas superpuestas y articuladas.

Poleyn & # 8211 armadura de placa para la rodilla.

Rebrace & # 8211 armadura para la parte superior del brazo.

Sabaton & # 8211 armadura de pie de acero articulada.

Ensalada / Sallet & # 8211 un casco de los siglos XV y XVI, a menudo con una visera pequeña con bisagras y una cola larga y articulada, para proteger la parte posterior del cuello. Existían variantes tanto para soldados de infantería como para hombres de armas.

Blindaje & # 8211 un dispositivo defensivo que venía en una variedad de formas y tamaños, hecho de madera o metal cubierto de cuero, y colgado del brazo por una serie de correas o agarrado por un asa.

Monumentos & # 8211 la "ranura para los ojos" en la visera de un casco. También se llama occularium.

Armadura tachonada y entablillada & # 8211 un término que a veces se le da a la armadura de transición del siglo XIV, en la que una variedad de materiales rígidos se remachaba en tiras o placas en el interior de telas pesadas o revestimientos de cuero.

Surcoat & # 8211 una prenda de tela larga, similar a una túnica, que se usa sobre la armadura, en una variedad de formas, desde la década de 1170 hasta la década de 1420. La primera sobrevesta era casi hasta el talón, y progresivamente se fue haciendo más corta y ajustada. Los abrigos servían para una variedad de propósitos. En primer lugar, mantuvieron una cierta cantidad de lluvia y suciedad fuera de la armadura. En segundo lugar, proporcionaron una pantalla para proteger la armadura de metal del calor del sol. En tercer lugar, se convirtieron en un fondo para la exhibición del escudo de armas del usuario.

Tabardo & # 8211 una prenda simple, similar a una sobrevesta, rajada por los lados, con la parte delantera y trasera sujetadas por lazos que podrían apretarse o dejarse sueltos. Los tabardos se usaban en torneos para exhibir la heráldica de los caballeros a fines del siglo XV, y sobreviven hoy como las elaboradas prendas que usan los oficiales del English College of Heralds en ocasiones ceremoniales.

Objetivo & # 8211 Un objetivo (& # 8220targa & # 8221 o italiano & # 8220rondella & # 8221) era un pequeño escudo de madera con una cubierta de cuero y adornos de cuero o metal. Algunas versiones posteriores del Renacimiento se hicieron completamente de acero. Los blancos se llevaban en el brazo como en los escudos típicos. También eran generalmente planos en lugar de convexos. El & # 8220targe & # 8221 en realidad proviene de pequeños & # 8220targets & # 8221 colocados en maniquíes de práctica de tiro con arco.

Objetivo & # 8211 un escudo redondo, montado en el brazo, utilizado a lo largo de la historia. La mayoría de los objetivos eran grandes (30 & # 8211 36 ”) y estaban hechos de madera, pero en el Renacimiento, una versión de acero más pequeña (24” de diámetro) se hizo popular.

Tassets & # 8211 Placas superpuestas que cubren la unión de la cadera y el muslo en un traje completo de armadura de placas.


Luchando con escudos

¿Qué sabemos sobre los diferentes escudos utilizados a lo largo de la historia en la batalla?

¿Fueron los más pesados ​​más resistentes al ataque? ¿Cuáles fueron los mejores para maniobrar en la pelea? ¿Seguramente los escudos pesados ​​se interpondrían en el camino en algún momento? ¿O se debió a un buen entrenamiento en el uso del escudo?

Brisieis

El escudo de Buckler 'bouclier' era un pequeño escudo redondo de mano que se usaba para proteger la mano de la espada e incluso se usaba como un puño de metal para golpear al oponente en la cara.

Aquí hay un clip para mostrar el tamaño del escudo.

[ame = http: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buckler] Buckler - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre [/ ame]

[ame = http: //www.youtube.com/watch? v = c67kRMp48JY & ampfeature = related] Sword & amp Buckler - Adventon 2010 - YouTube [/ ame]

SPERRO

El escudo de Buckler 'bouclier' era un pequeño escudo redondo de mano que se usaba para proteger la mano de la espada e incluso se usaba como un puño de metal para golpear al oponente en la cara.

Aquí hay un clip para mostrar el tamaño del escudo.

Brisieis

SPERRO

Brisieis

SPERRO

Eso sería correcto, los avances en la producción de armaduras de placas tuvieron este efecto.

otra razón era que los hombres armados luchaban de una manera ligeramente diferente (espadas largas de dos manos, etc.) lo que significaba que ya no se podía llevar un escudo.

Sin embargo, el escudo todavía se conservaba para las justas pero, debido a que los caballeros montados estaban más inclinados a luchar a pie, las cargas de caballería (cuando era necesario un escudo) se estaban convirtiendo en una cosa del pasado.

Brisieis

Eso sería correcto, los avances en la producción de armaduras de placas tuvieron este efecto.

otra razón era que los hombres armados luchaban de una manera ligeramente diferente (espadas largas a dos manos, etc.) lo que significaba que ya no se podía llevar un escudo.

Sin embargo, el escudo todavía se conservaba para las justas pero, debido a que los caballeros montados estaban más inclinados a luchar a pie, las cargas de caballería (cuando era necesario un escudo) se estaban convirtiendo en una cosa del pasado.


Preguntas sobre Armadura medieval

Tengo algunas preguntas sobre armaduras medievales, del siglo X al XII en Inglaterra, Escocia y Francia, etc.

  1. ¿Hay términos para diferenciar la cota de malla que solo cubría parcialmente el cuerpo, es decir, el torso, y la malla que cubría todo el cuerpo de la cabeza a los pies?
  2. ¿Hay diferentes grados de correo, como que algunos sean más pesados ​​o más finos que otros o los soldados simplemente se pusieron una capa adicional para mayor protección?
  3. He visto a personas recrear soldados ingleses medievales y tenían chaquetas gruesas hechas de tela con pequeñas placas de acero insertadas. ¿Cómo se llama esto? ¿Fue esto más efectivo o más barato que el correo?
  4. ¿Había una diferencia común en la armadura para los caballeros montados y los hombres de armas a pie?
  5. ¿Los campesinos recaudados pagaron su propia armadura?

Bart Dale

Tengo algunas preguntas sobre armaduras medievales, del siglo X al XII en Inglaterra, Escocia y Francia, etc.

  1. ¿Hay términos para diferenciar la cota de malla que solo cubría parcialmente el cuerpo, es decir, el torso, y la malla que cubría todo el cuerpo de la cabeza a los pies?
  2. ¿Hay diferentes grados de correo, como que algunos sean más pesados ​​o más finos que otros o los soldados simplemente se pusieron una capa adicional para mayor protección?
  3. He visto a personas recrear soldados ingleses medievales y tenían chaquetas gruesas hechas de tela con pequeñas placas de acero insertadas. ¿Cómo se llama esto? ¿Fue esto más efectivo o más barato que el correo?
  4. ¿Había una diferencia común en la armadura para los caballeros montados y los hombres de armas a pie?
  5. ¿Los campesinos recaudados pagaron su propia armadura?

Aquí hay un enlace con una imagen que muestra los distintos componentes de la armadura medieval: Armadura europea.

Otro enlace es [ame = http: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Components_of_medieval_armour] Componentes de la armadura medieval - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre [/ ame]

1. Hay diferentes nombres para la armadura de las diferentes partes del cuerpo: una cota de malla cubría el torso y las mangas, la cofia (capucha) que podría ser parte de la cota cubría la cabeza, etc.

2. Sí, hay diferentes grados de correo. Había un correo "doble" en el que se usaban 2 anillos en lugar de uno:

[cita =]
En el siglo XIII aparece la cota de malla, como se muestra en efigies y otras representaciones. La técnica consistía en pasar una correa de cuero a través de cada fila alterna de anillos, en aras de una fuerza adicional. A veces, el correo doble se muestra en monumentos tallados y se construye de la misma manera que el correo simple. Sin embargo, se usarían dos enlaces juntos en todos los casos, mientras que solo se usa uno en el correo único. Armadura medieval de cota de malla: desde la conquista normanda hasta el siglo XVI [/ quote]

3. Esas chaquetas con barras de hierro cosidas se llaman & quotbrigandine & quot [ame = http: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brigandine] Brigandine - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre [/ ame]

4. Sí, creo que sí. Las brigadinas eran usadas principalmente por infantes, no caballeros montados, y a menudo las piernas de infantes estaban desprotegidas. En general, los caballeros montados llevaban más y mejor armadura.

5. Sí, los soldados europeos medievales tenían que proporcionar su propia armadura en su mayor parte.

Ichon

1. Respondido suficientemente bien arriba o refiérase a

2. Había diferentes grados de correo, pero no un sistema de medición o descriptivo común que se haya transmitido hasta el día de hoy. Por supuesto, la gente pagaría más o menos dependiendo de la calidad percibida, pero la metalurgia no era una ciencia precisa en esos días, por lo que ni siquiera los buenos herreros fabricaban armaduras de calidad. En armaduras probadas y en algunas mallas raras, la calidad incluso dentro de una coraza varía y las cualidades protectoras pueden cambiar significativamente. Una gran parte del aumento del valor de la armadura fue la estética, pero una mayor protección costó más, ya que se necesitaban más piezas para una mayor protección y podría haber componentes de mayor o menor calidad. Incluso antes de las suites de placas completas, había muchas combinaciones de armaduras que se podían usar debido a las preferencias, la disponibilidad o el costo.

3. Por lo general, a lo que parece referirse sería a un bergantín, pero había varias formas de armadura, así que si ve recreadores, pregúnteles.

4. En realidad, es una pregunta un poco complicada porque los hombres en armas fueron un desarrollo posterior en los ejércitos medievales y, a menudo, estaban bien armados y muchas veces los caballeros luchaban desmontados. Además, la diferencia entre un hombre de armas y un caballero no siempre es clara en muchas regiones y épocas. Si tenías la riqueza para una armadura y el tiempo para entrenar para luchar, a menudo eras empleado por un aristócrata o eras uno en todo menos en el título. Algunos lugares, como Francia, tenían una clara distinción entre los hombres que luchaban principalmente en la lucha y los que no, ya que la riqueza que permitía un caballo de guerra era generalmente superior a la que podía pagar por una armadura y un entrenamiento experto. Muchos hombres armados montaron a caballo en la marcha, pero lucharon desmontados. El otro problema es cómo se formaron los ejércitos. A menudo, a un caballero o una persona de título superior se le ordenaba aparecer en una reunión con un cierto número de hombres. A veces, la orden especificaba si los hombres debían estar montados, qué tan armados (escudo, arco, lanza), pero la mayor parte del tiempo tales órdenes solo se usaban como una guía o simplemente se tomaban como una orden para aparecer personalmente con tantos hombres del área local. como quería luchar y podía permitírselo. Pelear en la campaña era costoso porque significaba que no se estaba haciendo el trabajo en casa e incluso los señores tenían cosas que cuidar, como un vecino que se quedaba en casa moviendo las fronteras o cobrando peajes en ausencia del verdadero propietario.

Por último, algunos lugares como Polonia, Italia, ERE, Levante, etc. organizaron sus ejércitos de manera muy diferente. En Polonia había caballeros, pero una mayor parte del ejército estaba compuesta por hombres libres o lo más cercano a una clase media que podemos llamarla en la época medieval. Italia tenía caballeros, pero solo pequeños séquitos, mientras que la mayoría de los ejércitos se pagaban con impuestos de las ciudades o más tarde con tributos de ciudades estado más pequeñas que a menudo pagaban mercenarios. ERE tuvo un ejército financiado por el estado durante mucho tiempo e incluso en su declive, ese modelo solo se desvaneció lentamente. Levante fue aún más complicado debido a las preferencias que dependen de la religión, la etnia, la política local y la riqueza. A menudo, el grueso del ejército estaría compuesto por voluntarios motivados por el botín o por el deber religioso. Los profesionales eran generalmente esclavos o mercenarios, pero a menudo bien armados y probablemente un número ligeramente mayor que en un ejército medieval típico de la era temprana, aunque esa relación cambió con el tiempo.

5. Las levas rara vez tenían armaduras de metal; a veces, la infantería a largo plazo que luchaba como mercenarios o enemigos robados / rescatados llevaban una armadura decente, pero su número era normalmente menor que el resto.


Armas y armaduras de Bannockburn II

Este breve artículo es una extensión del artículo del autor presentado en el último número, Medieval Warfare IV-3, que explora el equipo de guerra de los hombres de armas de principios del siglo XIV en la Batalla de Bannockburn, reconstruido en el ámbito digital para la El nuevo centro de visitantes de National Trust for Scotland en el lugar de la batalla. Si bien los señores y caballeros ricos podrían haber sido el elemento más glamoroso y colorido de los ejércitos medievales, los soldados comunes generalmente constituían la mayoría de las fuerzas. Como asesor de armas y armaduras del Proyecto Bannockburn, el autor fue responsable de informar a los diseñadores y artistas digitales sobre el equipo utilizado por todos los participantes de la batalla, ricos y pobres, caballeros nobles y humildes soldados de infantería. La naturaleza de los soldados comunes era más diversa de lo que muchos podrían esperar.

Perfilando los ejércitos: tipología del luchador medieval

While the men-at-arms on both sides at Bannockburn were a clear and very distinctive group, otherwise the two armies were somewhat different in composition. Both sides employed a number of different types of fighting man, armed and deployed in particular ways. The first step in reconstructing the equipment of these opposing common forces for the Bannockburn Project was to break down each side into its compositional elements. Not only was the English army much larger, its strengths and weaknesses differed significantly from those of the Scots. To assist the creation of several sets of digital ‘characters’, ‘Character Profiles’ were developed by the author to define the constituent parts of the two sides. The various ranks of men-at-arms have already been discussed in the print companion to the present article.

The English

Hobelars

Hobelars were essentially heavy infantryman who rode to the battlefield before dismounting to fight. Some could also fight as light cavalry if required. Their equipment was essentially the same as that of lower-ranking men-at-arms, the one notable difference being perhaps a general use of open-faced helmets – iron war hats or bascinets – rather than the fully-enclosed helms of the heavy cavalry. The main hobelar weapon was a light spear, somewhat shorter than the heavy cavalry lances used by the men-at-arms.

Longbowmen

It is a common misconception that all longbowmen were drawn from the poorest elements of medieval society. In fact the archers serving in the English army were, like the men-at-arms, probably a very diverse company. Some would have possessed armour of a decent quality, although there was not much in the way of uniformity or consistency. An iron skull-cap and a padded gambeson would have been all many possessed, while others had mail shirts and war hats. There is also some evidence for other pieces of armour made of densely padded cloth, such as mantles to protect the neck and shoulders. Inexpensive helmets seem also to have been made out of hardened leather or padded linen. Since archers were also expected to defend themselves at close-quarters, they carried swords, bucklers, short axes and other small hand-weapons along with their bows and arrows.

The longbow was usually only slightly shorter than the man shooting it. Quivers did not exist – arrows were carried in bunches thrust through the belt or stuck into the ground when shooting, and carried in cloth bags or stored in barrels when travelling.

Although a few of the strongest archers might have been armed with heavy bows with draw weights of 150 pounds or more, most would have shot weapons of between 100 and 130 pounds. An archer had to be able to shoot continually, potentially until his arrows were exhausted. It was therefore less vital that an archer shot at his maximum draw-weight and much more important that he was able to shoot consistently and reliably over an extended period of time. Although maximum range of the Anglo-Welsh warbows could extend to around 200 yards, their effective range was 50-100 yards. At this distance they had a chance of piercing the textile, mail and plate armour of the enemy, although this was never an easy task.

Crossbowmen

Overall the crossbowmen in the English army would have been equipped in quite a similar way to the longbowmen, apart from their choice of weapon.

The early fourteenth century was a time of great innovation in crossbow technology. Their stout bows were still being made out of wood, often the yew also used for longbows. However they were also increasingly made in a composite construction – strips of ibex or goat horn glued together formed the core, over which layers of frayed animal tendon were placed, and the whole wrapped in birch bark to seal out moisture. The most advanced bows, however, were made of tempered steel. This was a very new technology in 1314 the first documentary references to steel bows appear only around 1300.

The crossbow was a powerful weapon, with a much greater draw weight than the longbow. However the short bolts shot from the crossbow were also heavier, while the bolt’s acceleration time on the bowstring was much briefer both of these factors meant that much more bow-strength was required to cast a crossbow bolt the same distance as a longbow arrow. The range and striking power of the crossbows at Bannockburn may not actually have been very different in real terms from those of the longbows deployed alongside them. The crossbow’s key advantage lay in the ease of its use. Only a short time was required to teach the operation of a crossbow, a stark contrast to the lifetime’s practice, beginning in childhood, which was essential for good longbow shooting.

Mixed infantry

The majority of the English infantry forces at Bannockburn were made up of ‘mixed’ fighting men, armed and armoured in a heterogeneous way. A wide range of weapons was employed, including long-hafted axes, swords and bucklers, and short infantry spears – these must be clearly distinguished from the much longer schiltron spears of the Scots.

Armour is also quite varied, but was generally of one inexpensive form or another – mostly padded textile coats. It does, however, appear that mail and scale armour was worn by those who were able to get ahold of it, even among the common soldiery. War hats were often once again the helmets of choice, made of iron or hardened leather reinforced with iron, although other forms of head protection such as skull-caps of iron, hardened leather, or even scale construction, were also typical.

The Scots

Light cavalry/Border horsemen

The Scots had no heavy cavalry at Bannockburn. Instead, their knights and men-at-arms fought almost exclusively on foot. The Bruce’s army did, however, include a body of light cavalry, probably made up mostly of men from the Scottish Borders. Riding small fell ponies or ‘Galloway nags’, these mobile and rugged horsemen were equipped in a similar way to the better-armed spearmen in the schiltrons, with quilted aketons or gambesons and iron helmets, but usually no leg armour. Their weapon was the light cavalry spear, which later gave these troops the nickname ‘prickers’. Other weapons might include the arming sword and dagger. Like their English hobelar counterparts, the Scottish light cavalry would sometimes dismount to fight on foot.

Spearmen

The expertly-drilled spearmen who comprised the backbone of The Bruce’s army were defined by their very long spears, used en masse in well-disciplined formations to create the famous Scottish schiltrons. Schiltron spears were significantly longer than typical infantry or cavalry spears, and were used both defensively against cavalry and offensively in advancing blocks. Armour for the well-armed Scottish spearman ideally comprised a padded aketon, plate gauntlets, and a bascinet or skull-cap. Some probably also had mail armour. Many had little or nothing in the way of protective equipment. At King Robert’s Parliament at Scone in 1318, the minimum military gear his subjects were required to maintain was defined. Men worth £10 had to have a bascinet or war hat, aketon and/or mail shirt, plate gauntlets, sword and spear. Poorer men were ordered to possess a spear or bow and arrows, but armour was not mandatory. It is reasonable to suggest that at Scone Bruce was enacting in law a standard he had already been trying to achieve and maintain for some time. Some of the Scottish infantry at Bannockburn were probably already equipped in line with the higher of the two 1318 standards, but many others probably were not. A few may have carried swords for close-quarters defence, but primarily Bruce’s spearmen relied on what the written sources term ‘knife-men’- mixed infantry carrying short hand-weapons, seeded in amongst the spears, to provide protection and support as well as a close-range offensive capability.

Mixed infantry

The Bruce deployed mixed infantry with his schiltrons, tasked with protecting the spearmen and ordered to take advantage of any opportunities provided by them – for example the killing or capturing of English heavy cavalrymen halted or felled by the wall of spears, like the Earl of Gloucester (see On the cover in MW IV-3). Some had textile and mail armour, and hardened leather or iron helmets, but most, drawn from the poorest peasant class, had little or no protection. These light infantry were modestly armed, with small axes, long knives or even farm implements.

Highland Infantry

The body of Highland warriors under the personal command of Robert the Bruce would probably have been armed in much the same way as the rest of the Scots infantry forces. There may, however, have been certain visual features which would have distinguished the so-called ‘wild Irish’. For example, they are more likely to have worn their hair and beards long. The few higher status individuals among them, chieftains and their bodyguards, probably wore quilted aketons or gambesons supplemented with mail, iron helmets and in a few cases, some partial plate leg armour. However, the majority almost certainly did not wear armour of any sort. Most carried the distinctive Highland round shield, which had not yet developed the ornate patterns of decorative tacks and brass plates so closely associated with Highland targes of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The medieval targe could act as companion to a sword, axe or spear.

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Medieval Sabatons or Sollerets

los Sabaton o Solleret is a flexible steel piece of armour that covered the foot of a knight. They started to appear from the mid-14th century onwards.

Sabatons weren’t popular among men at arms fighting on foot. Instead, they were preferred by mounted soldiers as the feet would be at the perfect height for strikes from dismounted soldiers.

Fourteenth and fifteenth century sabatons usually ended in a tapered point or poulaine that went (well) beyond the wearer’s foot. This end imitated a type of shoe called crackows, which were popular at the time. These ends could be removed when the knight dismounted.

Sabatons were made of riveted iron plates called lames.

Mail and Plate Sabatons

In certain areas, like Italy, sabatons were made of mail. Sometimes, mail and plate sabatons are depicted side by side, indicating a knight might choose which one to use. While sabatons were preferred by mounted warriors (whose legs are exposed to attacks), mail sabatons might have been chosen for fighting on foot.

How to Wear a Sabaton

Sabatons were usually the first piece of armour to be put on. In order for them to work and protect the foot correctly, the plates have to be articulated so the sabaton can take the shape of the shoe underneath. Sometimes, the gaps between the sabaton and the greave were protected by mail, smaller plates, or scales.

Fifteenth century sabatons consisted of a toe cap, four articulated lames, a foot plate, an ankle plate, and a hinged heel cap. The different parts were joined with buckle straps.

There’s an effigy of Richard Beauchamp, the 13th Earl of Warwick in the Collegiate Church of St. Mary in Warwick that shows how the sabatons were worn (detailed above). Although the effigy doesn’t show spurs, there are remains of rivet holes and staples that indicate they would have been directly attached to the heel cap of the sabaton.

Two small holes on top of the sabaton’s toes were used to tie the front end of them to the shoe using lace or string. The back was secured by a buckle and strap circling behind the heel.


THE KNIGHT IN BATTLE

This late 15th-century picture of the battle of Neville’s Cross in 1346 shows fallen warhorses. Despite their power, horses proved vulnerable to English archers, especially when using hunting broadhead arrows with wide cutting surfaces.

This late 15th-century depiction from Jean Froissart’s Chroniques of the battle of Crécy on 26 August 1346 shows many elements of medieval armies, including archers, crossbowmen, foot soldiers and mounted knights.

Flags took several forms. The pennon or pennoncelle was a small triangular flag nailed to the lance behind the head, and was painted with the owner’s arms. Bannerets had a banner, in the 13th century usually a slim rectangular flag with the longest side against the staff, where it was nailed or tied in place. Banners bore their owner’s arms and were carried by banner bearers whose duty was to stay close to their lord. The lord’s arms during the 13th century could also be carried by all of his followers. In 1218 a robber is recorded buying 100 marks’ worth of cloth for his band as though he were a baron or an earl, suggesting that followers could be equipped in coats of the same colour at least. Barons and knights had the right to have their knights and squires wear a badge or uniform.

In battle men looked to their lord’s banner, which was usually carried furled and only broken out when fighting was expected. Its symbolism was of high import: if it fell or was captured there was a risk of panic, and it would be protected by several tough men. Signals were given by trumpet or by hand, especially if the noise made shouting ineffective. Trumpets were also used to call the troops to arms before battle. War cries were used to frighten the enemy and bolster courage.

When fighting on foot the knight relied in part on his following – his squires, household and retained men – to watch his back. In the 14th century he might wear a jupon with his coat-of-arms displayed on front and rear, but equally some were plain and a warrior with his visor down was then difficult to recognize. As well as the banner, for his followers, a man of rank might, by the end of the century, also have a standard, a long flag perhaps carrying the red cross of St George next to the fly, then elements of his heraldic coat, such as main charges and colours, and perhaps his motto, the war-cry shouted to rally and encourage his men.

By the 15th century, surcoats were increasingly discarded and, with a lack of shields, it was essential that the banner-bearer remain close to his master, following his horse’s tail, as it was said. A lord might give the order not to move more than 10 feet (or a similar measurement) from the standards, but if the line slightly shifted it would not be too difficult in the confusion of battle to strike out accidentally at an ally.

In order to carry out heraldic identification and to deliver messages, important nobles employed their own heralds wearing tabards of their master’s arms, and trumpeters with the arms on hangings below the instruments.

The outcome of a war in the medieval age hung not merely upon skill at arms in fact, this could actually be a secondary factor. John made an abortive attempt to invade Wales in 1211 that failed because of a lack of supplies Llywelyn and the Welsh collected their belongings and cattle and withdrew into the mountains. In 1265 Simon de Montfort’s troops were unable to get their normal food and suffered from having to live off the land in Wales. Edward I fought no major battles in Wales – the ground was wrong for cavalry and the Welsh fought more as guerrillas. Knights were often hampered by the mountainous terrain but the English were nevertheless victorious in two engagements. Edward instead used attrition. He launched his first campaign against Wales both by land and sea, using labourers and woodcutters to make a road through the forests, building castles and cutting off the grain supply from Anglesey. In 1282 a bridge of boats was built to cross to Anglesey.

The king used similar tactics against the Scots. The first campaign in 1296 was completed in just over five months, with Scotland annexed to England. After his victory at Falkirk in 1298 he was able to provision his garrisons. He was in Scotland again in 1300, besieging Caerlaverock Castle and leading his armies across the country, but the Scots withdrew and refused battle. English armies would always be hampered by problems of supply in Scotland: the further they ventured, the longer the lifeline to England became. Moreover, many English-held castles were scattered and remote, making it difficult to march swiftly from one to another, or to relieve a fortress if besieged.

Scouts were used to locate enemy forces, after which the commanders tried to work out the best way to proceed. Armies made use of terrain where possible, and were careful to protect a flank if feasible. William Marshal, in a speech to his troops before the second battle of Lincoln in 1217, pointed out how the enemy’s division of his force meant that Marshal could lead all his men against one part alone. Other commanders were less prudent or simply hotheaded. The decision by the Earl of Surrey in 1297 to cross Stirling Bridge with the Scots in near proximity was foolhardy, since there was a wide ford 2 miles upstream that would have allowed a flank attack, and indeed Sir Richard Lundy had suggested this move. As it turned out, William Wallace and Andrew Murray attacked before even half the English force was across the bridge and the majority of those caught on the wrong bank were crushed.

When Edward was in direct control he proved a good tactician, as he showed at Evesham in 1265. He advanced to stop Simon de Montfort reaching Kenilworth, and divided his army into three battles to block his escape. Caught in a loop of the River Avon, Simon’s vain hope of killing Edward was dashed when the second battle swung into his flank while the third blocked any escape back south.

In his Scottish campaign of 1298, Edward brought 2,500 heavy cavalry and probably about 15,000 infantry. At Falkirk he faced the Scots arrayed in their schiltrons, tightly packed formations presenting a hedge of spears towards any attacker. They may have additionally fortified the position with wooden stakes. Again, disagreement was found among the division leaders: having skirted to the right of wet ground, the Bishop of Durham sensibly wanted to wait for the earls of the left-hand division to come level, and for the king who was bringing up the centre. But the impetuous young Ralph Bassett urged the cavalry on. Swinging out round the flanks, the two English divisions rode down the Scottish archers stationed between the schiltrons, and the Scottish cavalry broke and fled. However, the horsemen could not break the determined Scottish ranks of spears and it was the move by the king to bring up his archers and crossbowmen that helped prevent his knights dashing themselves to pieces. English cavalry deterred the Scots from breaking their ranks, and they were then forced to stand their ground until the archers withdrew, allowing the cavalry finally to break through. Even so, over 100 horses were killed. It should be noted that there appear to have been more cavalrymen in the battle than archers, and that crossbowmen were also used. Edward does not seem as yet to have developed his tactic of using massed longbows to decimate enemy ranks.

Knights at this time still often fought from horseback, changing to their destriers or coursers from the palfreys they used for riding. There is no evidence that cavalry routinely dismounted during the Welsh wars.

When delivered correctly the charge of the heavy horse was a formidable weapon that could smash a hole in enemy ranks. The charge began as a walk, increasing speed when within suitable range so that the horses would not be blown or the formation disorganized when the final push came. The mounted charge could still be highly effective, the knights riding almost knee to knee with lowered lances in the hope of steam-rollering over the opposition. The lance usually shattered during the first charge, the stump being dropped and, if need be, the sword was drawn, or perhaps a mace or horseman’s axe. Inventories from the 13th century show that horses killed in battle largely belong to knights and those with mounts of quality in other words, the knights formed the front line.

Another problem with a mounted charge was discipline. As happened at Lewes, the charge by Prince Edward’s cavalry was successful but the elated horsemen kept going, pursuing their opponents so far as to put themselves out of the battle as well. The threat of the front line being completely penetrated was one reason commanders sometimes used a reserve, as did Simon de Montfort at Lewes. The knights who burst through might turn and strike the rear of the enemy line. The reserve was also quite often the position of the commander, with subordinates controlling the forward battles.

During the 14th century war was conducted in a number of ways. The chevauchée was one method. Like the well-tried feudal tactics that preceded it, the aim was to disrupt the economy of the area by swift movement, seizing food for the soldiers and destroying crops, villages and peasants (thereby insulting the lord of the place into the bargain) while evading danger to oneself by avoiding castles unless they were easy to capture.

Successful battles for the English required the use of cavalry to smash a hole in the enemy ranks, and the matchless skills of the English archers. However, as in the previous century, there were times when the cavalry shock manoeuvre could not be used effectively, for example in the bogs and mountains of Wales or against the Scottish schiltrons.

The young Edward III composed his forces so that the bulk of infantry were bowmen, and were mostly mounted to assist swift movement on the march. His men-at-arms were much more likely now to dismount on the battlefield to form the front divisions (called ‘battles’). Where possible, they stood in a naturally defended position with their archers, thus forcing the enemy to wear themselves out attacking them, a style of warfare first tested in battle against the Scots. Froissart describes how, in 1327, when Edward’s troops encountered the Scots, they were ordered to dismount and take off their spurs before forming themselves into three battles. In 1332 a force of the ‘disinherited Scots’ under the pretender Balliol (in fact pretty much an English force) invaded Scotland and after an abortive attack on the Scottish camp on the River Earn, formed a single block of dismounted men-at-arms at Dupplin Muir, with wings of archers and a small mounted reserve. The Scots, under the Regent, Donald, Earl of Mar, withered under the archery, and many of Balliol’s men-at-arms remounted to chase the routed enemy.

When Edward launched his main campaign against France, the English took their new double-pronged strategy with them. The first encounter in France was in 1342 when the English, driven back from the siege of Morlaix, formed up with a wood at their backs, a stream on one flank and dug a ditch to protect the front. Despite being pushed back to the woods, the English held their enemies off. At Crécy in 1346, dismounted men-at-arms and archers beat off repeated attacks by French cavalry, whose horses were a prime target for arrows. That same year this combination defeated a Scottish invasion at Neville’s Cross near the city of Durham, but there was heavy pressure on the English centre and right until a mounted English reserve was brought up and caught the Scots by surprise, the victory made complete by the arrival of reinforcements. At Poitiers in 1356 a mounted reserve swung the battle for the English, who were hard pressed in their defensive array by dismounted Frenchmen. The reserves turned the battle round and King John himself was captured.

In 1351 at Saintes the French retained mounted wings of horse to try to break up the archers on the flanks, and retained this formation for the rest of the century. At Nogent-sur-Seine in 1359 they succeeded in breaking into the English formation of archers in this way, whereas the men-at-arms kept tightly packed.

The significance of English archers in the French theatre is shown by the defeat at Ardres in 1351, where Sir John Beauchamp, caught by a dismounted French force as he returned from a raid, lined a ditch and held them off until they came to close quarters and another force broke up the archers.

In 1345 an English relieving force under the Earl of Derby charged into a French siege camp before Auberoche, the archers and men-at-arms doing much damage, while a sortie from the garrison finally broke the French forces. This form of surprise attack would occur again at La Roche Derien in 1347 during the Breton War of Succession, when an English relieving force fell on the French siege camp at night.

After Poitiers there were no further major battles between England and France until Agincourt in 1415. It was not battles that won a country as much as hard sieges: the French generally refused to fight in the open, instead shutting themselves up in castles and fortified towns, and forcing the English to besiege them, or else wander the countryside.

With the Treaty of Bretigny in 1360 garrisons emptied, and groups of soldiers formed free companies under captains such as Sir Robert Knollys (perhaps the earliest) and Sir John Hawkwood. These ‘rutters’, as the English called them, or routiers, actually consisted of men from many nationalities, though the French often referred to them all as ‘English’. Each company often consisted of only a few hundred men, archers, infantry and men-at-arms. A typical ploy was to seize one or two strong castles and use them as bases from which to terrorize an area. They hired their services out to rulers, and according to Froissart, the Black Prince used 12,000 of them in Castile. At the end of the 14th century they tended to disappear until their rebirth on a smaller scale after the renewal of war by Henry V.

English forces were also involved in Spain. At Najera in 1367 the army of the Black Prince formed three entirely dismounted lines, the main battle in the centre, to face a Castilian force including many French soldiers, also in three lines but with many cavalry. The men-at-arms again fought well, ably supported by archers who out-ranged the Spanish javelin-wielding mounted jinetes. They also out-shot crossbowmen and slingers, who drew back, allowing the English men-at-arms to overlap the enemy division. When the English rearguard swung in on the flank, the Spanish and French lines shattered.

By the 15th century, the knight often fought on foot. He had been trained to fight mounted, with a lance, but it was often more effective to dismount most of the men-at-arms and to keep only a small mounted reserve. This was partly due to the increasing threat from missiles. In France during the early 15th century, the English forces used tactics learned the previous century. If the armoured fighting men were kept near the blocks of archers and all waited for the enemy to advance, it meant the latter arrived in a more tired state, all the while harassed by the arrows from the archers and compressed by a natural tendency to shy away from them. This bunching could then work to the advantage of the English who used their archers to strike at the press of French soldiers, now aggravated by those behind pushing forward, as happened at Agincourt. The groups of mounted men-at-arms who tried to outflank the archers at the start of the battle were foiled by the woods which protected each end of the English line, and found to their cost the price of facing archers when mounted.

When archers were in a strong position, ideally defended by stakes, hedges or ditches, a cavalry charge was extremely dangerous. Even when the horses were protected by armour, there was always some exposed part that an arrow could strike, and arrows went deep. Shafts fitted with broad hunting heads made short work of flesh, and the horses became unmanageable even when not mortally wounded. The mounted knight then became useless as he fought for control or was thrown to the ground as the animal collapsed. It is worth noting that only a few hundred at each end of the French line attacked, and of these a few still reached the stakes despite the volleys of presumably thousands of arrows launched at them. Yet it was the dismounted men-at-arms who did most of the fighting in this battle, and it was they who, according to one chronicler, pushed the English line back a spear’s length before everything became jammed up:

But when the French nobility, who at first approached in full front, had nearly joined battle, either from fear of the arrows, which by their impetuosity pierced through the sides and bevors of their basinets, or that they might more speedily penetrate our ranks to the banners, they divided themselves into three troops, charging our line in three places where the banners were: and intermingling their spears closely, they assaulted our men with so ferocious an impetuosity, that they compelled them to retreat almost at spear’s length.

Since plate armour obviated the need for a shield, and fighting dismounted meant the rein hand was free, it became common for knights on foot to carry a two-handed staff weapon in addition to the sword hanging at their side. At first this was often a lance cut down to a length of around 6–7ft (1.8–2.1m). Increasingly, other staff weapons were carried, which could deal more effectively with plate armour. One of the most popular was the pollaxe, designed to dent or crush the plates, either to wound the wearer or so damage the plates that they ceased to function properly.

Mounted men were very useful in a rout, for they could catch up a fleeing enemy and cut him down with minimum risk to themselves, especially if he was lightly armoured. Indeed, catching archers out of position was the best way for cavalry to scatter them before they got a chance to deploy. In the Hundred Years’ War this was not too much of a problem for English knights, since the French did not use archers on a large scale. During the Wars of the Roses, archers fought on both sides in Yorkist and Lancastrian armies and, for the most part, the men-at-arms found it best to stick with the tried-and-trusted methods and fight on foot.

FIELD MEDICINE, DEATH AND BURIAL

Knights who were injured or sick faced two obstacles on any road to recovery. First, dependent on their rank, they might or might not get the chance to see a surgeon. Second, if they did get medical attention, a great deal depended on the quality of the physician and the nature of the wound. The king and the great nobles would have surgeons in their pay and such men would travel with their master when they were on the move. Thomas Morestede is styled as the King’s Surgeon in his agreement with Henry V for the invasion of France in 1415, where he is also to provide three archers and 12 ‘hommes de son mestier’ (men of his service). In addition, William Bradwardyn is listed as a surgeon and both he and Morestede came with nine more surgeons each, making a total of 20 for the army. Some surgeons were retained by indenture in the same way as the soldiers. John Paston, who was hit below the right elbow by an arrow during the battle of Barnet in 1471, managed to escape with other fleeing Yorkists but lost his baggage. His brother sent a surgeon who stayed with him and used his ‘leechcraft’ and ‘physic’ until the wound was on the mend, though John complained it cost £5 in a fortnight and he was broke.

The medical care itself was a mixture of skill and luck, since astrology and the doctrine of humours played a large part in medical care. Surgeons of repute were taught at the school of Montpellier in the Languedoc-Roussillon region of southern France, but even these men would have had limited skills. Many could treat broken legs or dislocations successfully, even hernias, and carried out amputations, though a lack of knowledge of bacteria made it a risky business for the patient. Some used alcohol, opium or mandragora to dull the pain. Neither instruments nor hands were necessarily washed. Open wounds could be treated by stitching, and egg yolks were recognized as a soothing balm. However, blood flow was staunched by the use of a hot iron.

Arrows might go deep, though by the 15th century it was less common to be hit by one with a head bearing barbs, especially when wearing armour. Yet arrows were often stuck in the ground for swift reloading, and conveyed on their tips a lethal dose of dirt which, together with cloth fragments, would be carried into the wound. Abdominal wounds were usually fatal, and surgery in this area was fairly lethal, since any tear in the gut would allow material into the abdominal cavity (not to mention dirt from the weapon used), resulting in peritonitis and death. However, skeletons from the battle of Towton in 1461 show that men did survive quite horrendous wounds. Bones show evidence of slashing blows which bit through muscle into the bone itself, in some cases shearing off pieces. One individual in particular had been in battle before, having been struck across the jaw with such force that the blade cut across to the other side of the mouth. He also had wounds to the skull, but survived all of these, with some disfigurement, to face action once more at Towton, knowing what that might entail – in this instance his own death. Although knights might wear better armour, it was (theoretically) their job to lead from the front. Some unfortunate knights neither escaped nor perished, but were left for dead, robbed and left half-naked in the open unless by chance they were discovered and succoured.

Much of the Towton evidence comes from men who were infantry. Compression of the left arm bones strongly suggests that some were almost certainly longbowmen. They appear to have been killed during the rout or after capture, and some have several wounds, especially to the head, suggesting that once cut down, further blows were delivered to finish them off. Presumably they had no helmet, or had discarded or lost it while being pursued. The victims were then placed in grave pits. Knights and men of rank might escape such a fate. After Agincourt, the Duke of York’s body was boiled and the bones brought back to England for burial. Similarly those of lords would be found either by their retainers or else by heralds, whose job it was to wander the field and book the dead (meaning those with coats-of-arms), which gave the victor a good indication of how he had fared. The families would then transport the body back to be buried on home ground, in the case of the nobility next to their ancestors. Otherwise they were buried locally, usually in a churchyard.

During the turmoil of the Wars of the Roses, with men supporting rivals to the throne, treason was an easy and swift charge to bring. For example, after the battle of Wakefield in 1460, Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, was captured and executed next day. Men of rank killed while in revolt might also undergo the degradation of public humiliation. This was not common during the first part of the 15th century, since much of the time knights fought in France, where they were usually treated as honourable opponents. Warwick the Kingmaker, however, having been slain at Barnet in 1471, was brought to London and displayed for all to see, before his body was allowed to rest at Bisham Abbey with other family members. Richard III was exposed for two days in the Church of St Mary in the Newarke in Leicester, naked except for a piece of cloth, and then buried in a plain tomb in the house of the Grey Friars nearby. Salisbury’s head, with those of the Duke of York and his young son, the Earl of Rutland, both killed at Wakefield, was stuck on a spike on the walls of York, the Duke’s complete with a paper crown.

Being treated to the indignity of having one’s head spiked on London Bridge or on other town gates served as a warning to all those passing beneath. However, a number of attainders (loss of civil rights following a sentence for treason) were reversed, such as that of Sir Richard Tunstall who, despite being placed in the Tower, managed to persuade Edward IV that he was more use alive and gained his favour. Children of those who died accused of treason did not usually suffer because of it, though their father’s lands might pass to the crown until they inherited them.

In contrast to this brutality, there is evidence that humanity and regret did exist. Chantry chapels were set up on various battlefields to pray for the souls of those who died, for example at Barnet, some half a mile (800m) from the town, where the corpses were buried. Richard III endowed Queen’s College, Cambridge, for prayers to be said for those of his retinue who perished at Barnet and Tewkesbury. Nobles might make provision for men of their retinues to be cared for if wounded Henry of Northumberland told his executors to carry out such wishes if he should be killed at Bosworth.


About Medieval suits of armor

Suit of armor is a garment set used by Medieval warriors to protect themselves in battles. It appeared in the 14th century all over the Europe, reached its peak of usage and popularity during the 15th — 16th centuries and was going out of use starting from 17th century. Before the development of suits of armor, troops were using the chainmail-brigand sets for maximizing the body protection. However, the development of metallurgy and constantly progressing craftsmanship improvement resulted in the creation of the suit of armor. The production of medieval full knight armor was the pinnacle of blacksmithing that required considerable skills, effort and cost, therefore a medieval armored suits were actually not only combat suits but status goods as well.

Types of full suits of armor

A great variety of armour suits types were created throughout the history of Medieval warriors’ garments development. Yet some of them were more popular and famous then the others:

  • Churburg style armor was a kind of transitional stage from chainmail to Milanese armour. This brigandine based set did not yet cover the entire body of a fighter, but was close to that

  • Knight’s full suit of armor was really popular at the end of the 14th century throughout Europe when metal plates began to replace brigandines. This is the elder brother of brilliant tournament armor, not so artsy, but extremely reliable

  • Milanese full suit of armor were popular during 15th century and you can recognize it by its functional smooth and sleek outlines even at corrugations. Moreover, its really large pauldrons protected the armpits better than any other armor did

  • Gothic full suit of armor was a typical representant of the chic and brutal 15th century armor school. Usually, it consisted of the sallet helmet and armpits protection with separate plates, mainly discs. One of the main features of German gothic full armor was lots of corrugation which made armor plates more rigid but elastic at the same time

  • Maximilian armour was a kind of knight fashion of 16th century battle suits. Its rich decoration with fluting deflected enemy's weapon and increased armor strength. It was a combination of the Italian rounded and the German fluted styles. You can see this corrugation at Maximilian`s lite and dandy version — Landsknecht three-quarter armor
  • Greenwich armor appeared due to the ambitions of Henry VIII and Royal Almain Armoury he founded. This Incredibly beautiful decorated tournament armor suits imitated fashion clothing and were based on Milanese and Maximilian armoury schools. Then and now it is not only an armor, but also a work of art. Clearly, if you are wearing one of these — you are not a common person

  • Japanese armor was samurai version of full combat armor suit. It was fundamentally different from European one consisting of many small iron, leather plates or their combination connected to each other by cords and rivets. It was substantially more lightweight than west armors as samurai had to be able not only to fight and ride a horse, but also do archery

Suits of armor parts

Suit of armor was a complex of armor parts combined to provide a superior warrior’s protection. From head to foot, it consists of:

  • Head armor — helmet, bevor or gorget
  • Arms armor — shoulder and elbow armor, gauntlets/gloves, bracers
  • Body armor — breastplate, metal skirt/tassets
  • Legs armor — cuisses, poleyns/knee caps, greaves and sabatons

Let us also remind you about such important elements as gambesons and other underarmor. Using this entire metallic splendor will be much more comfortable with them. If you do not have one, Steel Mastery is happy and ready to provide you a wide range of comfortable, high-quality gambesons that your new suit of armor fits perfectly on.

In addition, in case you already own a full suit armor, but would like to replace some outworn or damaged elements, we will gladly help you to replenish your suit to its best. Visit our head armor, arm armor, hand armor, body armor, leg armor and foot armor pages to find the elements you want or contact us directly via email [email protected]

Why full suits of armor by Steel Mastery?

When you buy armor suit from Steel Mastery, you get such cool benefits as:

  • Great variety of hand-crafted medieval suits of armor, made by highest standards from brutal IMCF/HMB to noble HEMA, suits from games and movies armors embodiment to gorgeous replicas of real royal suits of armour
  • Ability to own your personal custom real armor suit, made by our blacksmiths according to your individual parameters. You can order an armour suit of any style and country, made of steel or titanium of any thickness, a wide range of final treatment and polishing variants, decorations with etching, brass strips or painting
  • Excellent quality, maximum protection, distinguished mobility and convenience
  • Not just suits of armour, but precious legacy, your descendants will be able to own
  • Work of highly qualified blacksmiths, who choose traditional armoury as their passion in life and vocation

If you have any questions, please contact us via email [email protected] and we will be happy to provide any advice and assistance you need in choosing the type, materials, decorations etc. for your suit of armor.

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Ver el vídeo: como arreglar una arma o armadura en minecraft (Diciembre 2021).