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Estatua de Hércules de Hatra

Estatua de Hércules de Hatra


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Estatua de Heracles, Arcachon

A Estatua de Heracles se encuentra en el Parc Mauresque en Arcachon, Gironde. Se instaló en 1948 para conmemorar las acciones de la Resistencia francesa en la lucha contra las fuerzas de ocupación alemanas durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. La estatua, del escultor local Claude Bouscau, mide 3,1 metros (10 pies) de altura y representa al héroe griego antiguo Heracles después de su derrota del león de Nemea. En dos ocasiones, poco después de su instalación, Bouscau redujo el tamaño del pene de la estatua, a raíz de las quejas de las mujeres locales. El pene de la estatua fue robado con frecuencia. En 2016, el ayuntamiento decidió que no se reemplazaría de forma permanente, sino que se instalaría un pene temporal cuando se llevaran a cabo eventos públicos cerca de la estatua.

La ciudad de Arcachon, Gironde buscó conmemorar los esfuerzos de la Resistencia francesa durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Al escultor de origen local Claude Bouscau se le pidió que diseñara una escultura para colocarse en la ciudad. Parc Mauresque ("Parque Moro"). [1] [2] Bouscau propuso dos relieves que representan las figuras de "Victoria" y "Resistencia" junto con un cuenco de fuego. La ciudad rechazó esta propuesta por ser demasiado cara. En cambio, Bouscau propuso que se erigiera una de sus obras existentes, una estatua del héroe griego Heracles. [2]

La escultura de mármol de 3,1 metros (10 pies) de alto representaba a Heracles triunfando sobre el león de Nemea, el primero de sus doce trabajos, que representaría la victoria aliada sobre la Alemania nazi. La estatua había sido terminada por Bouscau en Italia antes de la guerra y su modelo era un oponente del dictador fascista Benito Mussolini. Representa a Heracles desnudo sin la piel del león, que lleva en la cabeza, a modo de capa. Su mano derecha sostiene, detrás de su espalda, el garrote que usó para aturdir al animal mientras su mano derecha sostiene dos serpientes. La estatua de Heracles fue aprobada e inaugurada en el parque el 22 de agosto de 1948. [2] Poco después de su instalación, Bouscau redujo dos veces el tamaño del pene de la estatua, a raíz de las quejas de las damas locales de que era demasiado grande. Esto a pesar de que los antiguos griegos consideraban a Heracles como un símbolo de virilidad. [1]

El pene de la estatua ha sido robado y no recuperado en numerosas ocasiones. [3] Cuando fue robado en junio de 2010, fue necesario hasta enero de 2011 para instalar un reemplazo. [2] Para 2016, la oficina del alcalde tenía un molde del pene del que se echaban reemplazos. [4] En 2016 el alcalde, Yves Foulon, declaró "No quisiera que nadie, ni siquiera mis peores enemigos, pasara por lo que le sucede a esta estatua" y la ausencia del pene provocó vergüenza en el concejo durante algunas ceremonias celebradas. en la estatua. [5]

En 2016, el consejo decidió no reemplazar el pene. En cambio, se fabricó un pene desmontable y solo se instalaría durante los eventos públicos celebrados en la estatua. La teniente de alcalde Martine Phellipot se inspiró para encargar el pene desmontable por su historial médico. Ella señaló que "Elegimos la opción de hacer una prótesis removible que se coloca en la estatua antes de cada ceremonia. Es la única forma de evitar perseguir constantemente su anatomía". [1] El pene desmontable fue hecho por Thomas Castelnau, un artista empleado por el ayuntamiento. [6] El pene se enrosca en la estatua cuando está ausente, solo queda una delgada varilla de metal. [dieciséis]


Contenido

Según la mitología griega adoptada por los etruscos y los romanos, cuando Hércules tuvo que realizar doce trabajos, uno de ellos (el décimo) fue buscar el ganado de Gerión del lejano oeste y llevarlo a Euristeo, esto marcó la extensión hacia el oeste de sus viajes. . Un pasaje perdido de Píndaro citado por Estrabón fue la primera referencia rastreable en este contexto: "los pilares que Píndaro llama las 'puertas de Gades' cuando afirma que son los límites más lejanos alcanzados por Heracles". [2] Dado que ha habido una asociación uno a uno entre Heracles y Melqart desde Herodoto, los "Pilares de Melqart" en el templo cerca de Gades / Gádeira (la actual Cádiz) a veces se han considerado como el verdadero Columnas de Hércules. [3]

Platón colocó la mítica isla de la Atlántida más allá de las "Columnas de Hércules". [4] La tradición renacentista dice que los pilares llevaban la advertencia Ne plus ultra (además No más ultra, "nada más allá"), que sirve de advertencia a los marineros y navegantes para que no vayan más lejos. [5]

Según algunas fuentes romanas, [6] mientras se dirigía al jardín de las Hespérides en la isla de Erytheia, Hércules tuvo que cruzar la montaña que una vez fue Atlas. En lugar de escalar la gran montaña, Hércules usó su fuerza sobrehumana para atravesarla. Al hacerlo, conectó el Océano Atlántico con el Mar Mediterráneo y formó el Estrecho de Gibraltar. Una parte de la montaña dividida es Gibraltar y la otra es Monte Hacho o Jebel Musa. Estas dos montañas tomadas en conjunto se conocen desde entonces como las Columnas de Hércules, aunque otras características naturales se han asociado con el nombre. [7]

Diodorus Siculus, sin embargo, sostuvo que, en lugar de atravesar un istmo para crear el Estrecho de Gibraltar, Hércules "estrechó" un estrecho ya existente para evitar que monstruos del Océano Atlántico ingresen al Mar Mediterráneo. [8]

En algunas versiones, Heracles construyó los dos para mantener el cielo alejado de la tierra, liberando a Atlas de su condenación. [9]

Más allá de Gades, los fenicios fundaron varias colonias importantes de Mauritania (en el actual Marruecos) cuando la flota mercante fenicia atravesó las columnas de Hércules y comenzó a construir una serie de bases a lo largo de la costa atlántica comenzando con Lixus en el norte, luego Chellah. y finalmente Mogador. [10]

Cerca de la costa oriental de la isla de Gades / Gadeira (la actual Cádiz, un poco más allá del estrecho) Estrabón describe [11] el templo más occidental de Tyrian Heracles, el dios con quien los griegos asociaron al fenicio y púnico Melqart, por interpretatio graeca. Estrabón señala [12] que los dos pilares de bronce dentro del templo, cada uno de ocho codos de alto, fueron ampliamente proclamados como los verdaderos pilares de Hércules por muchos que habían visitado el lugar y habían sacrificado a Heracles allí. Pero Strabo cree que el relato es fraudulento, en parte señalando que las inscripciones en esos pilares no mencionaban nada sobre Heracles, hablando solo de los gastos en que incurrieron los fenicios para su elaboración. Las columnas del templo Melqart en Tiro también tenían un significado religioso.

Los eruditos siríacos conocían los Pilares gracias a sus esfuerzos por traducir trabajos científicos griegos a su idioma y al árabe. El compendio siríaco de conocimientos conocido como Ktaba d'ellat koll 'ellan (La causa de todas las causas) es inusual al afirmar que había tres columnas, no dos. [13]

En Infierno XXVI Dante Alighieri menciona a Ulises en el foso de los Consejeros Fraudulentos y su viaje más allá de las Columnas de Hércules. Ulises justifica poner en peligro a sus marineros por el hecho de que su objetivo es conocer lo desconocido. Después de cinco meses de navegación en el océano, Ulises avista la montaña del Purgatorio pero se encuentra con un torbellino que hunde su barco y todo en él por atreverse a acercarse al Purgatorio en vida, solo por su fuerza e ingenio.

Los Pilares aparecen como soportes del escudo de armas de España, originario de la impresa del rey Carlos I de España del siglo XVI, quien también fue el emperador del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico como Carlos V. Fue una idea del humanista italiano Luigi Marliano. [14] Lleva el lema Plus Ultra, Latín para más allá, lo que implica que los pilares eran una puerta de entrada. Esto fue modificado de la frase Nec plus ultra, Nada mas mas alla después del descubrimiento de las Américas, que puso fin a la idea de las Columnas de Hércules como el extremo más occidental del mundo habitable que había prevalecido desde la Antigüedad.

Los pilares aparecen de forma destacada en la página de título grabada de Sir Francis Bacon Instauratio Magna ("Great Renewal"), 1620, obra inacabada de la que la segunda parte fue su influyente Novum Organum. El lema a lo largo de la base dice Multi pertransibunt et augebitur scientia ("Muchos pasarán y el conocimiento será mayor"). La imagen se basó en el uso de los pilares en la propaganda española y de los Habsburgo.

En la costa española en Los Barrios se encuentran las Torres de Hércules, que son torres gemelas que se inspiraron en el Columnas de Hércules. Estas torres fueron las más altas de Andalucía hasta que se completó la Torre Cajasol en Sevilla en 2015.

En el muro sur de la Biblioteca Central de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, el mural Representación histórica de la cultura, creado por el artista Juan O'Gorman, retrata una representación de las Columnas de Hércules como una alusión al pasado colonial de México y la casa de Carlos V. [15]

España, habiendo llegado al llamado Nuevo Mundo, cambió el original "Non plus ultra" por "Plus ultra" tal como se recodifica en su escudo de armas, lo que significa la apertura a una nueva era de descubrimientos geográficos.


El Museo J. Paul Getty

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Estatua de Hércules (Lansdowne Herakles)

Desconocido 193,5 × 77,5 × 73 cm, 385,5575 kg (76 3/16 × 30 1/2 × 28 3/4 pulg., 850.0001 lb.) 70.AA.109

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Detalles del objeto

Título:

Estatua de Hércules (Lansdowne Herakles)

Artista / Creador:
Cultura:
Lugares:

Imperio Romano (lugar creado)

Villa de Adriano, zona norte, cerca del Casino Fede, Tivoli, Italia (lugar encontrado)

Medio:
Número de objeto:
Dimensiones:

193,5 × 77,5 × 73 cm, 385,5575 kg (76 3/16 × 30 1/2 × 28 3/4 pulg., 850.0001 lb.)

Línea de crédito:
Título alternativo:

The Lansdowne Hercules (título para mostrar)

Departamento:
Clasificación:
Tipo de objeto:
Descripción del objeto

El héroe griego Heracles lleva un garrote sobre su hombro izquierdo y sostiene una piel de león en su mano derecha. Estos objetos ayudan a identificar la figura, ya que a menudo se representaba a Heracles con un garrote y la piel del león de Nemea, al que mató como su primer trabajo de parto. Como es típico en las representaciones de héroes griegos, el joven Heracles se muestra desnudo, ya que los griegos consideraban que la desnudez masculina era la forma más alta de belleza. Ningún otro dios o héroe se representa con tanta frecuencia en el arte griego y romano como Heracles.

El Lansdowne Herakles muy probablemente se inspiró en una estatua griega perdida, probablemente de la escuela de Policleto del 300 a.C. Encontrada en 1790 cerca de las ruinas de la villa del emperador romano Adriano en Tivoli, en las afueras de Roma, esta estatua fue una de las numerosas copias de la escultura griega encargadas por Adriano, que amaba la cultura griega. Una de las adquisiciones más preciadas de J. Paul Getty, la estatua recibe su nombre de Lord Lansdowne, quien una vez fue dueño de los Heracles y la exhibió en su casa en Londres. Las áreas de restauración incluyen la parte inferior de la pierna izquierda de la estatua y partes de ambos brazos.

Obras relacionadas
Obras relacionadas
Procedencia
Procedencia

Encontrado: Villa de Adriano, zona norte, cerca del Casino Fede, Tivoli, Italia (registrado por primera vez en Dallaway 1800)

Thomas Jenkins (Roma, Italia), vendido a William Petty-Fitzmaurice, 1792.

1792 - 1805

William Petty-Fitzmaurice, segundo conde de Shelburne, primer marqués de Lansdowne, 1737-1805 (Lansdowne House, Londres, Inglaterra), adquirido de su propiedad por su hijo, John Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 1805.

1805 - 1809

John Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 1765-1809 (Lansdowne House, Londres, Inglaterra), por herencia a su esposa, Mary Arabella Petty, 1809.

1809 - 1810

Mary Arabella Petty, marquesa de Lansdowne, fallecida en 1833 (Lansdowne House, Londres, Inglaterra), vendida a su cuñado, Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 1810.

1810 - 1863

Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, tercer marqués de Lansdowne, 1780-1863 (Lansdowne House, Londres, Inglaterra), por herencia a sus herederos, 1863.

1863 - 1866
1866 - 1927
1927 - 1936

Henry William Edmund Petty-Fitzmaurice, sexto marqués de Lansdowne, Británico, 1872-1936 (Bowood House, Wiltshire, Inglaterra) [puesto a la venta, La célebre colección de mármoles antiguos: propiedad del más honorable Marqués de Lansdowne, Christie's, marzo 5, 1930, lote 34, comprado nuevamente en Lansdowne Collection y transferido a Bowood House, Wiltshire, Inglaterra.], Por herencia a sus herederos, 1936.

1936 - 1944
1944 - 1951
1951 - 1970

J. Paul Getty, estadounidense, 1892-1976 (Sutton Place, Surrey, Inglaterra), donado al Museo J. Paul Getty, 1970.

Exposiciones
Exposiciones
Beyond Beauty: Antiquities as Evidence (16 de diciembre de 1997 a 17 de enero de 1999)
Arte Antiguo de la Colección Permanente (16 de marzo de 1999 al 23 de mayo de 2004)
Bibliografía
Bibliografía

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Tresham, Henry. Un catálogo de los mármoles de Lansdowne [. ] (Londres: William Bulmer and Co., 1810), pág. 8, no. 37.

Dallaway, James. De estatuas y esculturas entre los antiguos, con algunos ejemplares conservados en Inglaterra (Londres, 1816), pl. 40, fig. 14.6.

Informe del Comité Selecto de la Cámara de los Comunes sobre la colección de mármoles esculpidos del Conde de Elgin. (Londres, impreso para J. Murray, por W. Bulmer and Co., 1816), págs.91-2, 95, 99, 104.

Dallaway, J. "Charles Townley, Esq." En Ilustraciones de la historia literaria del siglo XVIII: consta de memorias auténticas y cartas originales de personas eminentes. vol. 3. Nichols, John, ed. (Londres: n.p., 1818), pág. 252.

Müller, Karl Otfried. "Nachrichten über einige Antiken-Sammlungen en Inglaterra: (Aus den Tagebüchern des Prof. Ottf. Müller en Göttingen)". Amalthea oder Museum der Kunstmythologie und bildlichen Alterthumskunde 3 (Leipzig, G. J. Göschen, 1825), págs. 241-2.

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Green, Thomas. "Diario de un amante de la literatura [Diario de Thomas Green, 28 de junio de 1804]". Revista para caballeros, segunda ser., 1, vol. 155 (enero-junio de 1834), pág. 252.

Clarac, Cte. Frédéric de. Musée de sculpture antique et moderne, ou description historique et graphique du Louvre et de toutes ses Parties (París: Imprimerie Nationale, 1841-53), V (1839-41) pl. 788, no. 1973 (1851) pág. 14.

Jameson, Sra. Anna. Compañero de las galerías de arte privadas más famosas de Londres (Londres: Saunders y Otley, 1844), págs. 334-5.

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Clinch, George. Mayfair y Belgravia: Siendo un relato histórico de la parroquia de St. George, Hanover Square. (Londres: Truslove & amp Shirley, 1892), pág. 79.

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Arndt, Paul y Walther Amelung. Photographische Einzelaufnahmen antiker Sculpturen (Múnich: Verlagsanstalt für Kunst und Wissenschaft, 1893-1940), con el núm. 4168 (O. Brendal, 1936).

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Frel, Jiri, Burton Fredericksen y Gillian Wilson. La guía del Museo J. Paul Getty. Rev. ed. (Los Ángeles: Museo J. Paul Getty, 1976), pág. 67.

Stewart, Andrew. Skopas of Paros (Park Ridge, Nueva Jersey: Noyes Press, 1977), págs. 98-99, 104 pl. 42a-c.

Fredericksen, Burton B., Jiří Frel y Gillian Wilson. Guía: Museo J. Paul Getty. 4ª ed. Sandra Morgan, ed. (Malibú: Museo J. Paul Getty, 1978), págs. 55-57, ill.

Frel, Jirí y Zdravko Barov. Conservación de Antigüedades. Antigüedades en el Museo J. Paul Getty. Folleto 3. Mayo-julio de 1978, núm. 1.

Fredericksen, Burton B., Jiří Frel y Gillian Wilson. La guía del Museo J. Paul Getty. 5ª ed. (Malibú: Museo J. Paul Getty, 1980), pág. 38.

Vermeule, Cornelius C. Escultura griega y romana en América (Berkeley y Londres: University of California Press, 1981), no. 54.

Stewart, Andrew. Skopas en Malibú: la cabeza de Aquiles de Tegea y otras esculturas de Skopas en el Museo J. Paul Getty (Malibú: Museo J. Paul Getty, 1982), págs. 49-53, fig. 52.

Raeder, Joachim. Die statuarische Ausstattung der Villa Hadriana bei Tivoli (Fráncfort del Meno y Berna: Peter Lang, 1983), págs.22, 53-54, 226.

Palagia, Olga. "La esperanza reconsiderada por Heracles". Oxford Journal of Archaeology 3, n. ° 1 (1984), pág. 117, fig. 9.

El manual de colecciones del Museo J. Paul Getty. 1ª ed. (Malibú: Museo J. Paul Getty, 1986), págs. 10, 34, fig. 11.

Gurdal, M. y S. Ozenir. "Der Herakles von Alanya", Antike Welt. Zeitschrift fuer Archaeologie und Kulturgeschichte 17, 3 (1986), págs. 23-26.

El manual de colecciones del Museo J. Paul Getty. 2ª ed. (Malibú: Museo J. Paul Getty, 1988), pág. 10, fig. 11.

Boardman, John, O. Palagia y S. Woodford. "Heracles". En Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae IV (1988), págs. 728-838, pág. 762, no. 659 pl. 489.

Juri, Eugenie. "Neue Kopfreplik des Herakles Lansdowne en Thessaloniki, Museo 11 516", Antike Plastik 19, 1988. págs. 31-33, figs. 3-11. (La cabeza en Salónica es de hecho una copia del Richelieu Hermes y no del Lansdowne Herakles. JD).

Deiss, Joseph Jay. Herculano: el tesoro enterrado de Italia (Malibú: Museo J. Paul Getty, 1989), pág. 81, enfermo. pag. 81.

Kranz, P. "Der sogenannte Herakles Hope". Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaeologischen Instituts, Roemische Abteilung 96 (1989), págs. 393-405, pág. 394, pl. 103, 2.

Stewart, Andrew. Escultura griega: una exploración (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990), págs. 184-85, 187, passim, fig. 548.

Kreikenbom, Detlev. Bildwerke nach Polyklet: Kopienkritische Untersuchungen zu den männlichen statuarischen Typen nach polykletischen Vorbildern (Berlín: Gebr. Mann, 1990), págs. 34, 80 (incl. N. 296), 173-74 cat. no. III 40 pls. 169c-170.

El manual de colecciones del Museo J. Paul Getty. 3ª ed. (Malibú: Museo J. Paul Getty, 1991), págs.6, 26.

Vaughan, Gerard. "Albacini y sus mecenas ingleses". Journal of the History of Collections 3, Número 2 (enero de 1991), págs. 183-197, págs. 194-195, fig. 11.

Podany, Jerry. "¿Falsificado, desollado o fracturado? Desarrollo de enfoques de compensación de pérdidas para antigüedades". En Compensación de pérdidas: cuestiones técnicas y filosóficas: actas de la Sesión del Grupo de Especialidad de Objetos, 10 de junio de 1994, 22ª reunión anual, Nashville, TN. Postprints de Objects Specialty Group, vol. 2. Ellen Pearlstein y Michele Marincola, compiladores. (Washington, D.C.: Instituto Americano de Conservación y Obras Artísticas, 1994), ext. .1 y .2 publicados ver ext. para detalles.

Vikela, Evgenia. Die Weihreliefs aus dem Athener Pankrates-Heiligtum am Ilissos: Religionsgeschichtliche Bedeutung und Typologie (Berlín: Gebr. Mann, 1994), págs. 216-19, pl. 40, fig. 1.

MacDonald, William A. y Pinto, John A. Hadrian's Villa and its Legacy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995), págs. 300-301, fig. 391.

El manual de colecciones del Museo J. Paul Getty. 4ª ed. (Los Ángeles: Museo J. Paul Getty, 1997), pág. 26.

Settis, Salvatore. I Greci: Storia, cultura, arte, società (Turín: G. Einaudi, 1997), p. 1289.

Kansteiner, Sascha. Herakles: Die Darstellungen in der Grossplastik der Antike (Ph.D. diss, 1997), (Köln: Böhlau, 2000).

Badinou, Panayota. Olympiaka: Anthologie des sources grecques (Bienne, Suiza: Comité Olímpico Internacional, 2000 [?]), Pág. 52.

Beard, Mary y John Henderson. Arte clásico: de Grecia a Roma. Oxford: 2001, págs. 9, fig. 7 95-96, fig. 66, enfermo.

El manual de colecciones del Museo J. Paul Getty. 6ª ed. (Los Ángeles: Museo J. Paul Getty, 2001), pág. 26.

El manual de la colección de antigüedades del Museo J. Paul Getty (Los Ángeles: 2002), págs. Xi-xii, 160-61, fig. 4.

Newby, Zahra. "Exhibición escultórica en la llamada Palaestra de la Villa de Adriano". Mitteilungen des deutschen Archaologischen Instituts, Romische Abteilung 109 (2002), págs. 70-71, fig. 8.

Grossman, Janet Burnett. Mirando la escultura griega y romana en piedra (Los Ángeles: Museo J. Paul Getty, 2003), págs. 57, ill.

Spivey, Nigel y Squire, Michael. Panorama del mundo clásico (Los Ángeles: Getty Publications, 2004), pág. 90, fig. 144.

Newby, Zahra. Atletas griegos en el mundo romano (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), págs. 116-19, fig. 4.16.

Risser, Erik y Jens Daehner. "Un sátiro vertiente de Castel Gandolfo: Historia y conservación". En el objeto en contexto: cruzando los límites de la conservación. David Saunders, Joyce H. Townsend y Sally Woodcock, eds. (Londres: IIC, 2006), págs. 190-96, fig. 1.

Stourton, James. Grandes coleccionistas de nuestro tiempo: coleccionismo de arte desde 1945 (Londres: Scala, 2007), págs. 124-25.

El manual de colecciones del Museo J. Paul Getty. 7ª ed. (Los Ángeles: Museo J. Paul Getty, 2007), págs. 8-9, ill.

Mattusch, Carol C. y col., Eds. Pompeya y la villa romana: arte y cultura alrededor de la bahía de Nápoles, exh. gato. (Washington, D.C .: Galería Nacional de Arte, con Thames & amp Hudson, 2008), pág. 83, fig. 12.

Gallazzi, Claudio, Barbel Kramer y Salvatore Settis, eds. Il Papiro di Artemidoro (Milán: Edizioni Universitaire di Lettere Economia Diritto, 2008), p. 574, fig. 5.44.

Levkoff, María. L. "Hearst y la antigüedad". Apolo (Octubre de 2008), 53-59.

Calcani, Giuliana. Skopas di Paros (Roma: G. Bretschneider, 2009), págs. 19-20, 48, 65.

Brand, M., "Hogar y fuera. Obras de arte como ciudadanos y migrantes" en Crossing Cultures: Conflict, Migration and Convergence, editado por J. Anderson (Melbourne: Miegunyah Press, 2009), 24-25, fig. 3.

El manual de la colección de antigüedades del Museo J. Paul Getty. Rev. ed. (Los Ángeles: Museo J. Paul Getty, 2010), págs. Xii, fig. 4, 160.

Lapatin, Kenneth. "La Villa Getty, la reconstitución d'une icône". Monumental (2010), págs. 72-75, figs. 1, 5, (La imagen utilizada es la estatua en la galería).

Wohlmayr, Wolfgang. Die Romische Kunst: Ein Handbuch (Mainz: Zabern, 2011), págs. 149-50, fig. 75 (reparto).

Di Mauro, Alberto. Italy Art LA, folleto educativo (Los Ángeles: Instituto Cultural Italiano de Los Ángeles, 2012), p. 22.

Platz-Horster, Gertrud. "Heracles en Brabante: Die Amethyst-Gemme aus Sint-Oedenrode". BABesch 88 (2013), págs. 191, 196-98, fig. 10, enfermo.

Stewart, Andrew. "Buscando desesperadamente a Skopas". En Ho Skopas kai ho kosmos tou: Skopas de Paros y su mundo. Dora Katsōnopoulou y Andrew Stewart, eds. (Atenas: Conferencia Internacional sobre Arqueología de Paros y las Cícladas, 2013), p. 24-26, figs. 3-4, 6, enfermos.

Mattusch, Carol C. Bronce duradero: arte antiguo, vistas modernas (Los Ángeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2014), págs. 154-55, fig. 99.

Kansteiner, Sascha y col., Eds. Der neue Overbeck (DNO): die antiken Schriftquellen zu den bildenden Künsten der Griechen. Banda III: Spätklassik: Bildhauer des 4. Jhs. v. Chr., DNO 1799-2677. (Berlín: De Gruyter, 2014), pág. 441, no. 16, 2309.

Thompson, Erin L. Posesión: la curiosa historia de los coleccionistas privados desde la antigüedad hasta el presente (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2016), págs. 118-19, fig. 14 [ext. .1-.2 publicado.].

Scott, David A. Arte: autenticidad, restauración, falsificación. (Los Ángeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press, 2016), págs. 198-200, 205, figs. 5.12-13.

Angelicoussis, Elizabeth. Reconstrucción de la colección de canicas clásicas de Lansdowne. 2 vols. (Múnich: Hirmer Verlag GmbH, 2017), vol. 1, págs. 58, 66 (ilustración), 69 (ilustración), 85 (ilustración), 93, 109 (ilustración), 110-111, 112 (ilustración) vol. 2, págs. 118-125, no. 14, figs. 14.1-14.6.

Recursos educativos
Recursos educativos

Recurso educativo

Información básica sobre la mitología griega y romana para acompañar el plan de estudios "Dioses, héroes y monstruos".

Lección en la que los alumnos aprenden sobre las criaturas mitológicas del mito de Hércules (Heracles). Aprenden vocabulario y dibujan una criatura mitológica.


La importancia política de Hércules

Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino. "El Joven Hércules". Oxford, Reino Unido: Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology, 1483-1520.

Los talentos artísticos de Michelangelo Buonarroti & rsquos quedan inmortalizados en grandes obras de arte como la David y el techo de la Capilla Sixtina, que puede ser visto en persona por una audiencia moderna. Sin embargo, este no es el caso de la pequeña parte de las obras del artista & rsquos que se han perdido durante los 500 años transcurridos desde su vida. En 1492, Miguel Ángel esculpió una estatua gigantesca del héroe mitológico Hércules. La estatua no se ha visto desde 1713, pero los historiadores pueden comprender el significado de esta pieza a partir de los registros de su movimiento a lo largo de la historia. Pasó por la posesión de una multitud de personajes históricos notables como Piero de & rsquo Medici, Filippo Strozzi y el rey Francisco I de Francia. Mientras que la estatua de Hércules se perdió a principios del siglo XVIII, su significado político pretendido tanto para los Medici como para el propio Miguel Ángel se perdió con su expulsión de Florencia.

En 1492, falleció Lorenzo de & rsquo Medici el Magnífico, lo que no solo dejó vacante el puesto de patriarca de la familia, sino también el papel de patrón y mentor de Miguel Ángel & rsquos. In their biographies of Michelangelo, both Ascanio Condivi and Giorgio Vasari state that Michelangelo was so struck with grief by the passing of Lorenzo that he carved an eight foot statue of Hercules in memoriam.1 As Michael Hirst and many other scholars suspect, the block of marble required for such a statue was most likely too expensive for Michelangelo to purchase himself which leads to the question of a commission.2

Michelangelo, Buonarroti, and Robert Walter Carden. Michelangelo a Record of His Life as Told in His Own Letters and Papers. London: Constable & company ltd., 1913.

After the death of Lorenzo, Piero de&rsquo Medici was expected to take his father&rsquos place as the head of the most powerful family in Florence. Condivi and Vasari both deny that Michelangelo worked seriously for Piero de&rsquo Medici and offer instead an anecdote that Piero requested Michelangelo to make a sculpture out of snow after a winter storm.3 This story works to eliminate Michelangelo&rsquos possible connection to Piero, who would be responsible for the exile of the Medici from Florence in 1494, which earned him the title &ldquothe foolish.&rdquo

However, a letter from Michelangelo to his father, Lodovico Buonarroti, in August of 1497 establishes his and Piero&rsquos relationship as one of patron and artist as the Michelangelo states, &ldquoI was instructed by Piero de&rsquo Medici to make a statue and I have bought the piece of marble for it.&rdquo4 Michelangelo&rsquos relationship with Piero is not the only evidence to support that the commission of the Hercules was for the Medici. Maria Ruvoldt cites in Michelangelo&rsquos Slaves and the Gift of Liberty, &ldquoWhen he fled Florence, Piero left behind a wealth of objects that were distributed by a committee of six Sindaci appointed by the republic to settle Medici debts. Among them was a marble Hercules restored on 11 August 1495 to a certain &lsquo&lsquoBonaroti,&rsquo&rsquo who is surely Michelangelo.&rdquo5

By acknowledging the Hércules as a Medici commission rather than an independent work, the political and social significance of the subject of the mythological hero changes. While art historians cannot know whether the subject of Hercules was chosen by Michelangelo or Piero, such a mythological subject carries a strong political message to the benefit of Piero. Leopold D. Ettlinger, in Hercules Florentinus , states &ldquoThe city government, he argued, picked on this specific symbol in order to tell all the world that Florence, like Hercules, was conscious of her power and would not allow any obstacles to stand in the way of her final goal: a pax florentina.&rdquo6 By commissioning a gigantic statue of Hercules, Piero aligned the Medici family with the strength of Florence and its history. Although ultimately unsuccessful, Piero tried to establish himself as a strong political figure similar to his &ldquomagnificent&rdquo father.

One of the many Hercules works of art owned by Lorenzo de' Medici.

Antonio Pollaiuolo, Hercules and Anteus, bronze. Florence, Museo Nazionale.

The claim made by Vasari and Condivi that the Hércules was a tribute to Lorenzo de&rsquo Medici is not an empty one. The Medici Palace had displayed Hercules &ldquotime and again in paint and bronze, for Lorenzo il Magnifico was surrounded by representations of Hercules and his exploits.&rdquo7 Lorenzo&rsquos own fixation on the mythological hero could have been a reflection of how he saw himself as well as an attempt to connect himself with Florentine iconography. Michelangelo and Piero would have been very familiar with Lorenzo&rsquos many commissions of Hercules-centered works. Michelangelo might have seen this as an opportunity not only for a commission but also as a way to honor a man who greatly inspired his life. Similarly, Piero de&rsquo Medici may have seen this as a way to further connect himself with his father&rsquos legacy in Florence. los Hércules as a Medici commission holds a strong meaning for both Michelangelo and Piero de&rsquo Medici as they tried to reestablish themselves after the death of the patron and father, Lorenzo de&rsquo Medici.

Unfortunately for Piero de&rsquo Medici, the Hércules statue could not save him from the anger of the Florentine people when the Medici were exiled in 1494. As previously stated by Ruvoldt, in 1495 the Hércules statue was presumably returned to Michelangelo as the Medici possessions were distributed.8 With the statue back in his hands, Michelangelo still held the power to determine the political significance of the piece.

The Strozzi Palace which held the Hércules until 1529.

With the Medici out of the Florence, it is not surprising that Michelangelo turned to another powerful Florentine family, the Strozzi&rsquos. Vasari briefly mentions that the Hércules &ldquostood for many years in the Strozzi Palace and was considered a marvelous work.&rdquo9 William E. Wallace concludes that the gift of the Hércules to the Strozzi was &ldquoa shift in alliance&rdquo and &ldquothe seeking of a new patron.&rdquo10 In this way, the Hercules continued to be of political significance at a turning point in Michelangelo&rsquos life. For the Strozzi, the Hércules still symbolized Florentine strength but instead it connected their family to the political scene rather than the Medici.

When Michelangelo handed over the Hércules to the Strozzi family, he lost any claim he had to the ownership of the piece. Filippo Strozzi, not unlike Michelangelo and Piero de&rsquo Medici, used the Hércules as a means of gaining political favor. Caroline Elam describes the tense political atmosphere in Florence during the late 1520&rsquos and the impending invasion of the Spanish imperial army.11 Filippo Strozzi used his connection to Battista della Palla to deepen the Florentine connection with France for support.12

In 1529, Filippo's son Piero wrote to him that he had handed over the Hércules statue to della Palla as a gift to the King of France, Francis I.13 Once again, the Hércules was used a tool of political gain however, this time without the input of Michelangelo. In a letter to Filippo from his brother, Lorenzo, he states, &ldquomany people - and especially Michelangelo - are unhappy that we are depriving ourselves of it&rdquo in reference to the departure of the Hércules from Florence.14 Ruvoldt attributes Michelangelo&rsquos displeasure to &ldquowounded pride&rdquo because Filippo removed the statue after over twenty years of ownership.15 While the movement of the Hércules from Florence to France was a political statement, it was not the political statement that Michelangelo intended to make in the context of Florentine society.

As a lost work of art, the Hércules is only accessible through its known history and reconstructions from other artists. Cuando el Hércules reached France, it was installed in the Palace of Fontainebleau until the destruction of the Jardin de l'Etang in 1713, when it disappeared from written history.16 As it stood in the French garden, the statue did not hold the same significance to its French audience as it would have to the Florentines. While art historians cannot confront the piece in person, the historical evidence of Hercules iconography in Florence, letters written by those involved, and the accounts of Michelangelo&rsquos life help put together a history of this work as it moved through time and space. Michelangelo could not have predicted the exile of the Medici, the fall of Florence, and the other numerous events that led to the statue passing from Florence to France. Taking all this into account and the lack of a physical piece of art, the Hércules can only be immortalized through its use as a political chess piece in the fluctuating political environment of sixteenth century Florence.

Ascanio Condivi, and Hellmut Wohl, The Life of Michel-Angelo (Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999), 15. Giorgio Vasari, Julia Conaway Bondanella, and Peter E. Bondanella, La vida de los artistas (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 421-422.

Michael Hirst, Michelangelo, Carrara, and the Marble for the Cardinal's Pietà (London: The Burlington Magazine,1985), 155.

Condivi, and Wohl. The Life, 15. Vasari, Bondanella, and Bondanella, The Lives of the Artists , 421-422.

Michelangelo, Buonarroti, and Robert Walter Carden, Michelangelo a Record of His Life as Told in His Own Letters and Papers (London: Constable & company ltd., 1913), 8-9.

Maria Ruvoldt, Michelangelo's Slaves and the Gift of Liberty (Chicago: Renaissance Quarterly, 2012), 1037.

Leopold D. Ettlinger, Hercules Florentinus (Florence: Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz,1972), 122.

Ettlinger, Hercules Florentinus , 128.

Ruvoldt, Michelangelo's Slaves , 1037.

Vasari, Bondanella, and Bondanella, La vida de los artistas , 421-422.

William E. Wallace, How Did Michelangelo Become a Sculpture? (Online: Academia.edu, 1992), 156

Caroline Elam, Art in the Service of Liberty: Battista Della Palla, Art Agent for Francis I (Chicago: I Tatti Studies in the Italian Renaissance 5, 1993), 43-45.


12 Historically Significant Things Destroyed Due to Human Stupidity

Our planet is packed full of amazing attractions. Some of the major attractions are historic structures and artifacts that give us a glimpse into lost civilizations. But, the activities of many people among the seven billion who inhabit this planet pose a risk to the most spectacular and ancient landmarks. This has been proved in recent times as well. In the last few decades, numerous historical structures and artifacts have been destroyed because of tourism, vandalism, and war, and some of them are destroyed beyond repair. Keep reading to find out 12 historically significant things destroyed due to human stupidity.

1. In 2015, two tourists destroyed the 300-year-old Statue of the Two Hercules used as the symbol of the Italian city of Cremona when they climbed over it to take a perfect selfie.

Image credits: Zigres/Shutterstock.com

Two tourists made headlines in Italy, but for a bad reason.

A 300-year-old Statue of the Two Hercules has long been a symbol of the city of Cremona in northern Italy. It is said that the legendary mythological demi-God discovered the city.

But, in 2015, two tourists, obsessed with selfies, smashed the iconic statue while trying to climb over it to get a selfie. It is the portion of the crown that was destroyed by the tourist’s lack of etiquette.

The priceless statue was built in 1700 and was originally built to put over Cremona’s city gates.

It looks like people will do anything for a perfect snap. (source)

2. In 2013, a 2,300-year-old Mayan pyramid was destroyed to make way for a road fill project by a construction company in Noh Mul, Belize.

The small Caribbean nation of Belize is well known for its lovely beaches, outstanding barrier reef, rain forest, and extensive relics left by the Mayans.

But, In 2013, the country lost one of its historic monuments, because of a construction company. A 2,300-year-old Mayan pyramid at Noh Mul was destroyed by bulldozers to make fill for roads.

According to reports, the 65-foot-tall pyramid was constructed around 250 BCE with hand-cut limestone bricks, which was a quality material used by the companies to improve the quality of local roads, and it’s prized by contractors.

“This is one of the worst that I have seen in my entire 25 years of archaeology in Belize,” was how it was described by the archaeologist, John Morris, from the Institute of Archaeology, in Belize. (source)

3. Two teenagers in 2016 damaged a 5,000-year-old rock carving of skiing by scratching along the image lines using a sharp object to make it more visible and distinct in the Norwegian Island of Tro.

The ancient skier carving, before it was damaged. (Nordland County) Image credits: Smithsonianmag.com

The Norwegian island of Tro has a 5,000-year-old rock carving depicting a man skiing. The carving was one of the world’s earliest indications of skiing, and it also inspired the symbol of the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer.

Sadly, in 2016, two teenagers with good intentions ruined the ancient carving, in an attempt to make it more visible and clearer. They used a sharp object to scratch along the image’s linings to make it more distinct.

Reports suggest that original carvings were destroyed and are beyond repair. “It’s a tragedy because it’s one of the most famous Norwegian historical sites,” the mayor of the nearby Alstahaug Municipality told the reporters.

The boys realized their mistake and made a public statement apologizing for their ignorant behavior.

Officials didn’t disclose their names to prevent any potential abuse towards the teenagers. (source)

4. In 1759, Reverend Francis Gastrell demolished William Shakespeare’s house after buying it six years before in 1753 because he was not happy with the tourist surge in the place, and also the people of the town were not happy with his attitude.

Stratford-upon-Avon- Shakespeare’s New Place. Image credits: Tripadvisor

When Reverend Francis Gastrell bought Shakespeare’s house, Stratford-upon-Avon, in 1753, he quickly became frustrated with the rising number of tourists at the place. In addition to that, he had issues with the local officials over taxes.

People in the town were already mad at him for cutting down a mulberry tree planted by Shakespeare in the garden. Then, he did something which was probably unthinkable for many Shakespeare lovers. Six years after buying the house, he destroyed the former home of one of the most famous poets in history.

The people of Stratford-upon-Avon were devastated when they heard about this. Gastrell’s popularity plummeted drastically, and eventually, he had to get out of the town. (source)

5. In 1941, When Nazi leader, Adolf Hitler, sent three million German soldiers to invade the Soviet Union under Operation Barbarossa, they looted and destroyed precious artworks from the famous Amber Room in Russia.

Image credits: Giggel/web.archive.org

The Amber Room, which was decorated with six tones of Amber and semi-precious stones by Danish amber craftsman Gottfried Wolfram, was sent to Russia in 18 large containers in the 1700s.
The room built with international collaboration was set up in the Winter House in St. Petersburg as a part of a European art collection.

The magnificent room of art was used as a private meditation room, a gathering room, and sometimes as a trophy cabinet. According to historians, the total estimated value of the precious room would be $142 million in today’s world.

In1941, Adolf Hitler started Operation Barbarossa, which led to the invasion of the Soviet Union by three million German soldiers. Thousands of art collections were looted during that period from the illustrious Amber Room, as Nazis believed they belonged to Germans since they were made by Germans. (source)

6. In 2015, Islamic State militants destroyed the ancient Hatra site in Iraq, built 2,000 years ago.

Hatra. Image credits: Véronique Dauge/Wikimedia

The Islamic State, known for its violent, extremist ideas, has killed thousands of people and forced many others to flee their homes. In addition to ruining people’s lives, they destroyed many historic artifacts, and monuments as well.

In 2015, militants associated with the Islamic State demolished the historical archaeological site of Hatra in Iraq, which was built 2,000 years ago.

The iconic historical site, which is 110 km southwest of Mosul, was a secured city that stood strong against the invasions of Romans because of its thick walls. Not only that, Hatra city contained several temples and sculptures dedicated to gods like Apollo and Poseidon.

Officials suggested that militants had used explosives and bulldozers to smash down the buildings.

According to IS, which captured a large proportion of Iraq and Syria, shrines and statues are “false idols” that have to go down to pieces. “The destruction of Hatra marks a turning point in the appalling strategy of cultural cleansing underway in Iraq,” head of UNESCO, Irina Bokova mentioned in a statement. (source)


Reconstructing the Lost Hercules

In 1493, Michelangelo carved an eight foot tall marble statue of the mythological hero Hercules. Unfortunately, this sculpture was lost after sometime in France at the Palace of Fontainebleau. Due to its lost nature, this exhibit centers around the movement of the piece from Florence to France and the numerous hands it passed through on this journey. The mapping portion of the exhibit showcases the most probable trajectory of the piece from its conception to its last known location. By showing the movement of Hercules with a map and timeline, one is able to get a different perspective of how a work of art can be so removed from its origin and what that means for the interpretation of this work in history. The written portion of the exhibit explores the political significance of the Hércules as it changes hands through history. The exhibit aims to answer the question regarding Michelangelo's intentent for his Hércules statue and how the interputaion of his work changed as its location changed.


The J. Paul Getty Museum

This image is available for download, without charge, under the Getty's Open Content Program.

Statue of Hercules (Lansdowne Herakles)

Unknown 193.5 cm (76 3/16 in.) 70.AA.109.1

Open Content images tend to be large in file-size. To avoid potential data charges from your carrier, we recommend making sure your device is connected to a Wi-Fi network before downloading.

Not currently on view

Object Details

Título:

Statue of Hercules (Lansdowne Herakles)

Artist/Maker:
Culture:
Place:

Hadrian's Villa, northern area, near the Casino Fede, Tivoli, Italy (Place Found)

Medium:
Object Number:
Dimensiones:
Credit Line:
Department:
Classification:
Object Type:
Related Works
Related Works
Provenance
Provenance

Found: Hadrian's Villa, northern area, near the Casino Fede, Tivoli, Italy (first recorded in Dallaway 1800)

Thomas Jenkins (Rome, Italy), sold to William Petty Fitzmaurice, 1792.

1792 - 1805

William Petty-Fitzmaurice, 2nd earl of Shelburne, 1st marquess of Lansdowne, 1737 - 1805 (Lansdowne House, London, England), acquired from his estate by his son, John Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 1805.

1805 - 1809

John Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 1765 - 1809 (Lansdowne House, London, England), by inheritance to his wife, Mary Arabella Petty, 1809.

1809 - 1810

Mary Arabella Petty, marchioness of Lansdowne, died 1833 (Lansdowne House, London, England), sold to her brother-in-law, Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 1810.

1810 - 1863

Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd marquess of Lansdowne, 1780 - 1863 (Lansdowne House, London, England), by inheritance to his heirs, 1863.

1863 - 1866
1866 - 1927
1927 - 1936

Henry William Edmund Petty-Fitzmaurice, 6th marquess of Lansdowne, British, 1872 - 1936 (Bowood House, Wiltshire, England) [offered for sale, The celebrated collection of ancient marbles: property of the most honourable the Marquess of Lansdowne, Christie's, March 5, 1930, lot 34, bought back into the Lansdowne Collection and transferred to Bowood House, Wiltshire, England.], by inheritance to his heirs, 1936.

1936 - 1944
1944 - 1951
1951 - 1970

J. Paul Getty, American, 1892 - 1976, donated to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1970.

Bibliography
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Jameson, Mrs. Anna. Companion to the Most Celebrated Private Galleries of Art in London (London: Saunders and Otley, 1844), pp. 334-5.

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Timbs. John. Curiosities of London: exhibiting the most rare and remarkable objects of interest in the metropolis. (London: D. Bogue, 1855), p. 490.

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Smith, A. H., ed. A Catalogue of the Ancient Marbles at Lansdowne House, Based Upon the Work of Adolf Michaelis. With an Appendix Containing Original Documents Relating to the Collection. (London: n.p., 1889), pp. 9, 26-8, no. 61.

"Käufliche Gipsabgüsse." Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts V (1890), p. 161, no. 61 [as cast by Brucciani].

Wheatley, Henry Benjamin. London, past and present its history, associations, and traditions, vol. 2. (London: J. Murray, 1891), p. 366.

Clinch, George. Mayfair and Belgravia: Being an Historical Account of the Parish of St. George, Hanover Square. (London: Truslove & Shirley, 1892), p. 79.

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Hercules and Diomedes

Robert Langdon and Sienna wander in the Palazzo Vecchio in search of new clues, and a very special statue catches their attention.

We are talking about the statue of Hercules and Diomedes in the Hall of the Five Hundred.

This statue—located next to the Genius of Victory by Michelangelo and Florence triumphant over Pisa by Giambologna—belongs to a series of statues representing The Labors of Hercules.

Cosimo I de’ Medici commissioned twelve statues to sculptor Vincenzo de’ Rossi in 1560, but he managed to complete only seven of them.

In the original project, this series of sculptures was supposed to decorate a fountain in the Boboli Gardens.

Since 1592, these statues have been located in the Salone dei Cinquecento, with the exception of a brief period when Florence was capital, when they were moved to the Bargello Palace.

These sculptures represent the following escenas: Hercules and Cacus, Hercules and the Centaur Nessus, Hercules and Antaeus, Hercules and Diomedes, Hercules and the Boar Erymanthian, and Hercules and Hippolyta.

The seventh group, Hercules with the sphere of Atlas, is now at the entrance to the Villa di Poggio Imperiale.

Hercules is the mythological hero that best embodies Greek freedom and heroism: for this reason, the Republic of Florence and the Medici loved the stories of Hercules very much and often celebrated them with art.

Hercules embodied liberty as David—the hero who defeated Goliath— and who, not surprisingly, was chosen to stand at the entrance of the Palazzo Vecchio.

En Greek mythology, Hercules embodies courage and perseverance. At the end of his twelve labors he conquers immortality, which is the quality of all right and fair creatures.

If you want to know all about Hercules, we have a free e-book to suggest: Myths of Greece and Rome, by Hélène Adeline Guerber.

In his youth, Hercules did not know what to do with his fate. Then two women—Softness and Virtue—appeared to him and offered him a choice between a life of pleasure and joy and one of toil and glory.

Hercules chose the latter and had to face the twelve labors: Hercules and Diomedes is one of these episodes.

During the course of his twelve labors, Hercules, the strongest of the gods, also found time to remedy injustice and abuse.

In the Hercules and Diomedes episode, Eurystheus—to which Hercules was subjected according to the will of Zeus—commanded Hercules to seize the mares of Diomedes and bring them to Mycenae, the city where Eurystheus was king.

Diomedes, son of the cruel god Ares, was a despot and reigned over the Bistoni in Thrace.

He had some wild mares, spitting fire and flames from their nostrils.

As he was cruel, Diomedes used to feed them with the poor who were shipwrecked by storms off the coast of Thrace.

Hércules, with little effort, reached Thrace, capturado and tied Diomedes, and fed him to his own mares.

When the horses had eaten their own master, Hercules brought them to Mycenae as promised, and Eurystheus set them free.

The statue in the Hall of the Five Hundred succeeds very well in representing a right punishment for tyrants.

¿Por qué? You can find out the description given by Vayentha, the shadow character of Dan Brown’s Infierno:

The sculpture depicted the two heroes of Greek mythology—both stark naked—locked in a wrestling match. Hercules was holding Diomedes upside down, preparing to throw him, while Diomedes was tightly gripping Hercules’ penis, as if to say, “Are you sure you want to throw me?”

Florence Inferno is a blog about the Florentine mysteries, symbols, and places that are mentioned in Dan Brown’s latest novel Infierno, and much more about the city. We also offer a guided Inferno walking tour, which follows the footsteps of Robert and Sienna, as well as an an eBook with an audio version.

It is nice to be able to see the places, sculptures, paintings, etc that are depicted in the book. Thank you for this.


ISIS' Attack on Ancient History Called a 'War Crime'

Already notorious for videos of beheadings and executions, the extremist group that calls itself the Islamic State, or ISIS, has recently taken aim at archaeological ruins and relics in attacks that international leaders say amount to a "war crime."

Last week, ISIS released a video of the group ransacking the Mosul Museum in northern Iraq. Yesterday (March 5), Iraq's Ministry of Culture announced that ISIS had razed one of the famous capitals of the Assyrian empire, the 3,300-year-old city of Nimrud, near the banks of the Tigris River.

"The deliberate destruction of cultural heritage constitutes a war crime," UNESCO Director General Irina Bokova said in a statement today. [In Photos: See the Treasures of Mesopotamia]

"This is yet another attack against the Iraqi people, reminding us that nothing is safe from the cultural cleansing underway in the country: It targets human lives, minorities, and is marked by the systematic destruction of humanity's ancient heritage," Bokova said. She called on political and religious leaders to condemn the destruction, and added that she had alerted the U.N. Security Council and the prosecutor of the International Criminal Court.

'Amazingly dangerous situation'

The bulldozing of Nimrud was especially shocking because it is one of the most important archaeological sites not just in Mesopotamia, but the world, said Ihsan Fethi, director of the Iraqi Architects Society.

"It was a crime against anything any civilized person would believe," Fethi added.

Nimrud covers nearly 2 square miles (5 square kilometers) and has sprawling palaces, temples and a citadel. The city was built by the Assyrian king Shalmaneser I in the 13th century B.C. A few centuries later, it became the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, considered by some scholars to be the first true empire in world history.

You hardly had to go to Nimrud to appreciate its architecture and artwork. Today, museums like the Louvre in Paris and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York display Nimrud's statues of human-headed winged beasts, known as lamassu, as well as intricately carved reliefs showing lions, kings, gods and scenes of battle that once decorated palace walls.

Nimrud has a long history of excavations by Western archaeologists, going back to the mid-19th century. Sir Austen Henry Layard brought reliefs from the ancient city to the British Museum and other collections in the late 1840s and 1850s. One hundred years later, another British archaeologist, Max Mallowan, directed excavations at Nimrud. (His wife, the mystery novelist Agatha Christie, often joined the expeditions.)

Still, Fethi estimated that only 15 to 20 percent of the city had been excavated, and the site possibly hides more discoveries, which, at least in the near future, have little chance of being explored.

"This is an amazingly dangerous situation," Fethi said. "The longer [ISIS] stay, the more destruction we'll see."

Fethi worries that the next target could be the ancient city of Hatra — another UNESCO World Heritage Site that was founded in the third century B.C., some 70 miles (110 km) southwest of Mosul. (Those who don't know Hatra for its impressive temples and architecture might know the ancient city from its cameo in "The Exorcist.") [See Photos of Amazing UNESCO World Heritage Sites]

Documenting the damage

The events have been both heartbreaking and frustrating for archaeologists and cultural heritage specialists watching from afar.

"We can express outrage and highlight the enormous loss that's going on — and the significance of that loss — but beyond that, it's extremely difficult to do anything," said Paul Collins of the British Institute for the Study of Iraq.

For now, some experts are trying to at least take stock of what may have been lost.

Christopher Jones, a doctoral student who is studying the history of the ancient Near East at Columbia University, said he downloaded the video of ISIS pillaging the Mosul Museum last week and went through the footage bit by bit, taking screenshots and notes. On his blog, Gates of Nineveh, Jones published a two-part post describing the objects he could identify.

He had to turn to older images from inside the museum and obscure publications — older books and academic papers, mostly in Arabic — to piece together a picture of what was destroyed. Some of the objects that were smashed at the Mosul Museum were clearly replicas.

"You can tell from some of them by the way they break," Jones said. Plaster casts tend to shatter, while authentically ancient stone sculptures are much more durable when they're toppled over.

Some of the more dramatic scenes in the ISIS video seem to involve replicas or casts. In one part of the video, a plaster copy of a statue of Hercules is pushed to the floor, and it immediately smashes into thousands of little pieces, kicking up a cloud of white dust. In another scene, a sculpture of a face hanging on the wall of the museum's Hatra Hall falls to the floor in slow motion after a man in a purple polo shirt takes a sledgehammer to it. Jones spoke to Lucinda Dirven, an expert on Hatra, who thinks the face could be a plaster cast of one of the masks that was built into a wall at the ancient city.

That Hercules statue was listed as one of the four replicas in the Hatra Hall, according to a basic inventory of the Mosul Museum that was shared on the IraqCrisis cultural heritage mailing list. But there were 30 other objects from the same gallery listed as authentic, including four statues of kings from Hatra. All four of those statues seem to have been destroyed — a 15 percent loss of all existing statues of Hatrene kings, as just 27 were known, Jones said.

Besides the Hatra Hall, the Mosul Museum has two other galleries: one dedicated to Assyrian art with reliefs and statues from Nimrud and Nineveh (another ancient Assyrian capital) and an Islamic hall, which was not shown in the video.

That video also cut to footage taken beyond the walls of the museum, at Nineveh. It showed men using power tools to destroy the colossal lamassu that stood guard at the Nergal Gate Museum. The winged statues were among the few that hadn't already been shipped off to other museums.

"Those were some of the few lamassu that were still in situ," Jones said.

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Ver el vídeo: Farnese Hercules (Mayo 2022).